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3G and 4G TECHNOLOGY full report
Post: #1


.doc  3G&4G TECHNOLOGY.doc (Size: 173 KB / Downloads: 120)


his paper provides an insight into 4G technology. 4G is the next generation of wireless networks. 4G is a conceptual framework for a discussion point to address future needs of a universal high speed wireless network that will interface with wire line backbone network seamlessly. 4G technology provides the download speed for mobile internet connections. It provides motivation for 4G researches before 3G has not been deployed. It is impossible to predict technology developments and the evolution of latest at present. In wireless communication, mobile technology is advanced and in this system 4G is the latest at present.


4G is the next generation of wireless networks that will replace 3G networks sometimes in future. In another context, 4G is simply an initiative by academic R&D labs to move beyond the limitations and problems of 3G which is having trouble getting deployed and meeting its promised performance and throughput.
In reality, as of first half of 2002, 4G is a conceptual framework for a discussion point to address future needs of a universal high speed wireless network that will interface with wireline backbone network seamlessly.


At present (2G) imode data rates in Japan are up to 9.6 kbit/sec, but usually a lot slower, and 28.2kbps for 504i, 505i, 506i handsets (since May 2002). For 3G (FOMA) data rates are at present around 200kbps (download) and 64kbps (upload) and will in the future be upgraded to 10 Mbit/sec. KDDI/AU offers 2.4 Mbit/s since December 2003. For 4G data rates up to 20 Megabytes per second are planned.

Before understanding 4G, we must know what is 3G?

3G initiative came from device manufactures, not from operators. In 1996 the development was initiated by Nippon Telephone & Telegraph (NTT) and Ericsson; in 1997 the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) in the USA chose CDMA as a technology for 3G; in 1998 the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) did the same thing; and finally, in 1998 wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) and cdma2000 were adopted for the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).
Post: #2


Wireless phone standards have a life of their own. You can tell, because they're
spoken of reverently in terms of generations. There's great-granddad who's
pioneering story pre-dates cellular, grandma and grandpa analog cellular, mom
and dad digital cellular, 3G wireless just starting to make a place for itself in the
world, and the new baby on the way, 4G.
Most families have a rich history of great accomplishments, famous ancestors,
skeletons in the closets and wacky in-laws. The wireless scrapbook is just as
dynamic. There is success, infighting and lots of hope for the future. Here's a
brief snapshot of the colorful world of wireless.
First of all, this family is the wireless telephone family. It is just starting to
compete with the wireless Internet family that includes Wi-Fi and the other 802
wireless IEEE standards. But it is a completely different set of standards. The
only place the two are likely to merge is in a marriage of phones that support
both the cellular and Wi-Fi standards.
Wireless telephone started with what you might call 0G if you can remember
back that far. The great ancestor is the mobile telephone service that became
available just after World War II. In those pre-cell days, you had a mobile
operator to set up the calls and there were only a handful of channels available.

Introduction of GSM and CDMA

AMPS and TDMA are now being phased out in favor of either CDMA and GSM
which allow for higher capacity data transfers for services such as WAP and imode,
Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS), and wireless Internet Access. The
major difference between the two options is that CDMA has a much higher
capacity then GSM, as well as some other features (i.e. being able to talk to six
different cell sites simultaneously, and a higher bitrate Vocoder). There are some
phones capable of supporting AMPS, TDMA and GSM all in one phone (using
the GAIT standard; see the Nokia 6340, for example); however, AMPS/CDMA
phones supports nearly seamless roaming between CDMA and AMPS/TDMA
(with the loss of some features) while GAIT phones cannot.

Revolution 4G

4G has sprung from a usage-driven research framework o invent new
technologies for the wireless world vision. The evolution of such a wireless
system (also called ‘beyond 3G’ or ‘B3G’) is closely linked to rapid advances in
digital and component technologies.
The merger of consumer electronics, computer systems, telecommunications
and broadcasting is leading to an information convergence that will require
increasingly seamless connections. Seamless means getting over barriers of
different wireless standards and bands. So future mobile devices will be capable
of supporting multiple wireless standards, and operate in a multimode, multiband
The 4G wireless communication system can be integrated with the Internet
protocol (IP) backbone network to provide quality-of-service (QoS) support for
multimedia applications. It will support dynamic scheduling, link adaptation and frequency selection as well as full roaming capabilities. 4G will also mean mobile
telephony at a data rate of 100 Mbps globally (between any two points in the
world) and 1 Gbps locally.

Broadband and wireless ubiquity

According to NTT-DoCoMo, a leading Japanese wireless company, the current
data download speed for the I-Mode mobile Internet service is 9.69 kbps
theoretically, although in practice the rates tend to be slower. 3G rates are
expected to each speeds 200 times that, while 4G will yield further increases,
reaching 20 to 40 Mbps. 4G services would allow data transfer speeds of up to
20 MB/s for uplinks and 100 MB/s for downlinks-up to 260 times faster than
popular 3G services, which allow for downlinks at 384 kB/s.

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