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Even more firms and other organizations have come to the realization that one of their most valuable assets is the brand names associated with their products or services. In our increasingly complex world, all of us, as individuals and as business managers, face more choices with less time to make them. Thus a strong brand’s ability to simplify consumer decision making, reduce risk, and set expectations is invaluable.


According to the American Marketing Association (AMA), a Brand is a “name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of the sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitor”. Technically speaking, then, whenever a marketer creates a new name, logo, or symbol for a new product, he or she has created a brand.

Brand Recognition:

Brand recognition consists of brand awareness and brand recall performance. Brand recognition is consumer’s ability to confirm prior exposure to the brand when given the brand as a cue. In other words, when they go to the store, will they be able to recognize the brand as one to which they have already been exposed?
Brand recall is consumer’s ability to retrieve the brand from memory when given the product category, the needs fulfilled by the category, or a purchase or usage situation as a cue. If research reveals that many consumer decisions are made at the point of purchase, where the brand name, logo, packaging, and so on will be physically present and visible, the brand recognition will be important.

Brand Image:

Creating a positive brand image takes marketing programs that link strong, favorable, and unique associations to the brand in memory. The definition of customer-based brand equity does not distinguish between the source of brand associations and the manner in which they are formed; all that matters is their favorability, strength, and uniqueness.
This means that customers can form brand associations in a variety of ways other than marketing activities: form direct experience; through information from other commercial or nonpartisan sources such as consumer reports or other media vehicle; from word of mouth; and by assumptions or inference consumers make about the brand itself, its name, logo, or identification with a company, country, channel of distribution, or person, place, or event.
Marketers should recognize the influence of these other sources of information by both managing them as well as possible and by adequately accounting for them in designing communication strategies.



Namaste and welcome to India- the land of amazing diversity and stunning landscapes. Stretching from the icy peak of the Himalayas to the tropical greenery of Kerala, and from the sacred Ganges to the sea of sand dunes in Thar Desert, the country encompasses incomparable variety. It is steeped in history, and every stone and ancient structure has a story to narrate. India's history is more than just a set of unique developments but it is, in many ways, a microcosm of human history. No matter how many Persians, Greeks, Chinese nomads, Arabs, Portuguese, British and other raiders invaded the land but India always formed a positive way out.

Pre-Vedic and Vedic Age

The history of this starling land begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization in such sites as Mohenjodaro, Harappa and Lothal. The twin cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa now in Pakistan possessed a sophisticated lifestyle, a highly developed sense of aesthetics, astonishing knowledge about town planning together with effective road side drainage system and multi storied houses. After surviving for about thousand years the civilisation fell to tectonic upheavals. The coming of the Aryans around 1500 B.C gave the final blow to collapsing Indus Valley Civilisation. The four Vedas or the important
books of Hinduism were also compiled during this period.

Buddism and Mourya Empire

In 567 B.C, the founder of Buddhist religion Gautama Buddha was born. His Buddhism inspired the great king, Asoka of the Mauryan Empire to give up his warfare and embrace Buddhism and spread the same in many parts of Asia. He built the group of monuments at Sanchi ( a UNESCO world heritage site). The Asoka Pillar at Sarnath has been adopted by India as its national emblem and the Dharma Chakra adorns the national flag.


This study is based on research of historical references, demographics, cultural trends, economic forecasts, political landscape, inhabitants or residents, periodicals, and books regarding branding as it relates to municipalities. This paper further illustrates cities that have positive brand images and continue to experience brand success. The Creative Class and Municipal Marketing are also explored as new methods being utilized to measure the current market trends of cities.
This information is based on a number of sources including books, periodicals, personal experience, word-of-mouth, residents, and advertising. There are reasons why people choose particular cities in which to live. Certain cities are making comebacks even when the industries they were built on have become obsolete. Brands evolve, and cities that survive have managed to evolve. Progress and technology have become both friend and foe. If you doubt that a new market for city brands is emerging, consider the loyalty a city can command. Strategists and planners are working at a feverish pace to re-brand cities or to brand a city that’s never had a strong brand in order to create a community where people will want to live. City planners are spending millions of rupees in brand investing to bring their cities to life, or in some instances, back to life. Volume breeds mediocrity, and the sheer scale of today's cities prevents them from excellence in all but pockets, quarters, and precincts.


Competition for residents has increased substantially among cities. This is in part because of globalization and technology. Society now has the choice of living in one place and working in another because of the Internet, laptops, home offices, and wireless connections. Living in one particular city if you want to succeed in a certain industry still exists, but is starting to erode. People now have the option of being able to do business anywhere in the world and can decide what is best location wise to provide them with the most benefits. Cities are also giving way to foreign manufacturing and can no longer bank on their traditional industries as a means to keep them alive. To combat this, they need to brand themselves as good places to live, where a diverse range of technology, industry, retail, and other attractions can thrive. For many cities, this could be their last opportunity to keep current residents and attract new ones.



New Delhi was laid out to the south of the Old city which was constructed by Mughal Emperor Shah jahan. However, New Delhi overlays the site of seven ancient cities and hence includes many historic monuments like the Jantar Mantar and the Lodhi Gardens.
Calcutta was the capital of India until December 1911 during the British Raj. However, Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient and medieval India, most notably of the Mughal Emperor from 1799 to 1849. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire (as it was officially called) from Calcutta to Delhi. Unlike Calcutta, which was located on the eastern coast of India, Delhi was located in northern India and the Government of British India felt that it would be easier to administer India from Delhi rather than from Calcutta. On December 12, 1911, during the Delhi Durbar, George V, the then Emperor of India , along with Queen mary, his Consort, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while laying the foundation stone for the Viceroy's residence in the Coronation park, Kingsway camp.
The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by King George V and Queen mary at the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on December 15, 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens (Sir Edwin from 1918) and Herbert Baker (Sir Herbert from 1926), both leading 20th century British architects, and the contract was given to Sobha Singh (later Sir Sobha Singh). Lutyens first visited Delhi in 1912, and construction really began after World War I and was completed by 1931, when the city later dubbed “Lutyens Delhi” was inaugurated on February 13, 1931, by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy. Lutyens laid out the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations.


Traditionally, the term “Marketing” has been a term applied to the craft of linking the producers of a product or a service with customers, both existing and potential. However, in popular usage the term refers to the promotion of products, especially advertising and branding. In professional usage the term refers to a customer centered product, and for our purposes, a city.
The traditional ‘Marketing Mix’, otherwise known as ‘The four P’s’, consists of Price, Promotion, Product and Placement. Not only do cities focus on the Marketing Mix, but also on Relationship Marketing (marketing them from a long term relationship perspective), rather than individual, one-time transactions. A municipality is defined as “an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government.”
Cities across the India are striking deals with corporate sponsors in an effort to raise money for municipalities. This has become a trend in order to balance budgets.
“This trend is driven by city officials trying to balance the budgets. Citizens expect more from government, but they don’t want property or sales taxes to increase.” says Douglas Peterson, who studied the issue for the National League of Cities. These way cities can balance budgets easier without raising taxes. Although it looks like it could be a win-win situation, it has gotten plenty of criticism for selling out city resources.

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