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Circuit Breaker Maintenance by Mobile Agent Software Technology
Post: #1


New maintenance techniques and methodologies are emerging, while the circuit breakers keep improving in their designs and functions . As an example, some new circuit breakers have embedded monitoring instruments available to measure the coil current profiles and the operation timing . The recorded information can be used to monitor the condition of breakers during each operation. In this case, it may be more appropriate to replace the time-directed maintenance by condition-directed maintenance practice . When applied properly, both the size of the maintenance crew and maintenance cost may be reduced greatly with this approach. Since the number of circuit breakers in a power system is usually very big, a small maintenance cost saving per each circuit breaker can accumulate to a considerable benefit for the whole system. A more systematic solution is
Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), which can be used to select the most appropriate maintenance strategy.

Circuit breakers are crucial components for power system operations. They play an important role in switching for the routine network operation and protection of other devices in power systems. To ensure circuit breakers are in healthy condition, periodical inspection and preventive maintenance are typically performed. The maintenance schedules and routines usually follow the recommendation of circuit breaker vendors, although the recommended schedules may be conservative.

During the maintenance or repair work, the maintenance crew will need to access information distributed across the utility and stored using different data formats. By equipping the crew with new information access methods to replace the old paper-based information exchange and logging method, the efficiency may be improved since less time will be spent on preparation, reporting and logging. An information access method that is capable of handling heterogeneous information sources will be helpful to achieve the above goal. Also, the new information access method should be secure and able to work on unreliable public networks.

The mobile agent software provides a flexible framework for mobile agent applications. An agent application program can travel through the internet/intranet to the computers where the mobile agent server or transporter is running. The mobile agent software also supports Distributed Events, Agent Collaboration and Service Bridge. Compared with client server systems, an agent can process the data locally and thus reduce the network traffic. Besides, the Java platform encapsulates the network layer from the agent, which makes the programming easier. The mobile agent software may fit very well in the circuit breaker maintenance scenario. In this paper, we considered how mobile agent software might be applied in circuit breaker maintenance and monitoring from the viewpoint of the maintenance crew.


The maintenance of circuit breakers deserves special consideration because of their importance for routine switching and for protection of other equipment. Electric transmission system breakups and equipment destruction can occur if a circuit breaker fails to operate because of a lack of a preventive maintenance. The need for maintenance of circuit breaker is often not obvious as circuit breakers may remain idle, either open or closed, for long periods of time. Breakers that remain idle for six months or more should be made to open and close several time in succession to verify proper operation and remove any accumulation of dust or foreign material on, moving parts and contacts.

The circuit breakers mainly consist of the interrupter assembly (contacts, arc interrupters and arc chutes), operating mechanism, operation rod, control panel, sealing system, and breaking medium (SF6, oil, vacuum and air). To ensure the performance of a circuit breaker, all the components should be kept in good condition; therefore time-directed preventive maintenance has been widely adopted. The preventive maintenance tasks include periodic inspection, test, and replacement of worn or defective components and lubrication of the mechanical parts. The maintenance intervals are usually determined using experiences or following the recommended schedules provided by the vendor or standard.

The maintenance practices can be divided into three categories: corrective maintenance, preventive maintenance, and predictive maintenance.
Post: #2
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please I would like to have your assistance on this seminar topic. I will be greatful to have a full copy of the topic. thanks Oscobi.
Post: #3
for more about fx6

sulphur hexaflouride ( SF6 ) gas is used as the arc quenching medium. The sf6 gas is an electro negative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. The contacts of the breaker are opened in a high pressure flow of sf6 gas and an arc is struck between them. The conducting free electrons in the arc are rapidly captured by the gas to form relatively immobile negative ions. This loss of conducting electrons in the arc quickly builds up enough insulation strength to extinguish the arc. The sf6 circuit breakers are very effective for high power and high voltage service.

Construction: Fig 15 shows the parts of a typical sf6 circuit breaker. It consists of fixed and moving contacts enclosed in a chamber called arc interruption chamber containing sf6 gas. This chamber is connected to sf6 gas reservoir. When the contacts of breaker are opened the valve mechanism permits a high pressure sf6 gas from the reservoir to flow towards the arc interruption chamber. The fixed contact is a hollow cylindrical current carrying contact fitted with an arc horn. The moving contact is also a hollow cylinder with rectangular holes in the sides to permit the sf6 gas to let out through these holes after flowing along and across the arc. The tips of fixed contact, moving contact and arcing horn are coated with copper-tungsten arc resistant material. Since sf6 gas is costly, its reconditioned and reclaimed by a suitable auxiliary system after each operation of the breaker.

Working: In the closed position of the breaker the contacts remained surrounded by sf6 gas at a pressure of about 2.8 kg/cm2. When the breaker operates the moving contact is pulled apart and an arc is struck between the contacts. The movement of the moving contact is synchronized with the opening of a valve which permits sf6 gas at 14 kg/cm2 pressure from the reservoir to the arc interruption chamber. The high pressure flow of sf6 rapidly absorbs the free electrons in the arc path to form immobile negative ions which are ineffective as charge a carriers. The result is that the medium between the contacts quickly builds up high dielectric strength and causes the extinction of the arc. After the breaker operation the valve is closed by the action of a set of springs.

refered by

Post: #4
Presented By
Srutisudha Das

.ppt  Circuit Breaker Maintenance by Mobile Agent Software TechnologyP.ppt (Size: 537.5 KB / Downloads: 284)
Circuit Breaker Maintenance by Mobile Agent Software Technology

 Circuit breakers are crucial components for power system operation.
 The currently adapted time-directed maintenance strategy and the emerging new condition-based strategy require a flexible information processing technique and software architecture.
 In this paper, mobile agent software has been applied in implementing circuit breaker maintenance and repair tasks.
 Several potential application scenarios have been described and the relevant software features have been discussed.
 The benefits of using the mobile agent techniques are discussed at the end.
 Circuit Breaker Maintenance Tasks
 Mobile Agent Software
Application Scenarios
 Creating Circuit Breaker Failure Reports
• When a circuit breaker failure does happen, some immediate action and follow-up investigation are required
• A mobile agent makes an itinerary according to its knowledge about the location of information sources and will travel to each source and collect the information.
• The agent may also choose to delegate tasks to a bunch of second level agents and edit the last returned result from other agents
• The agent may also utilize some heuristic rules to help determine the possible causes of the failure.
• The generated report is in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format and contains only the necessary information about the failure report
How failure report is created?
Circuit breaker monitoring

 How circuit breaker monitoring occurs?
Security Consideration
 Mobile Agent Administrator Tool
Logging and Experience Sharing
Cost-benefit analysis

 Agents can assist users in performing some standard analysis.
 For example, to determine whether in-service monitoring of a circuit breaker is satisfied, a cost-benefit analysis based on the risks and investment return may be processed automatically.
 In a decision making sequence has been recommended, which consists of three stages.
 Some historical data will help the user to give a more appropriate score for assessing each failure mode
 Utilizing mobile agent techniques, the convenience and speed of accessing and generating maintenance data will be improved.
 With increasing complexity of circuit breaker equipment, more information is needed to perform the maintenance work, so an efficient data communication exchange becomes very important.
 Mobile agents can process information locally with less network bandwidth consumption.
 Also its ability to provide reliable transmission on disconnected or low quality networks is an important merit
 Mobile agent computing easily facilitates the integration and automation of the maintenance process, starting from the generation of work orders to the completion of the maintenance report
 Mobile agent computing also provides the means by which real-time and off-line data can easily be integrated into a single distributed maintenance management system.
 Using real-time monitoring data, the maintenance system can evaluate the condition of devices, which makes predictive maintenance possible.
 The integration of real-time data may be utilized to improve the maintenance management decisions.
 The platform independence feature of mobile agents provides interface and support for great variety of devices
 In this paper, mobile agent software has been applied in circuit breaker maintenance.
 Mobile agent software may be suitable for applying in circuit breaker maintenance practice due to its support for heterogeneous systems, security, distributed events, low-bandwidth usage, etc.
 Using the mobile agent software, the development work can be greatly simplified.
 Also, agent-based software architecture makes the application more flexible and upgradable.
Post: #5
Presented by:

.ppt  SWAGATIKA.ppt (Size: 1.2 MB / Downloads: 176)
A circuit breaker is an equipment which can:
 make or break a circuit either manually or automatically under normal conditions
 break a circuit under abnormal conditions
During the separation of contacts, due to large fault current and high current density at the contact region the surrounding medium ionises and thus a conducting medium is formed. This is called the ARC.
Factors responsible for arc:-
 Potential difference between the contacts
 Ionised particles between the contacts
By removing any one of these the arc can be quenched.
Dielectric properties of SF6 gas:-

 DS of sf6 is 2.5 times of air
 DS of sf6 is 30% less than oil
 DS of sf6 is equal to oil at 63700 N/m2
 And 15% higher at 122500 N/m2
Advantages of SF6 gas:-
Byproducts are corrosive & likely to affect the organic materials.
Absorbent materials used in circuit breakers
 activated alumina( effective for SOF2,H2S,SF2)
 molecular sieves( sodalime-CaO.NaOH)-removes stable gases such as SF4,SiF4 & S2F2
So suggested mix is 50/50 of sodalime & alumina. The suggested weight of absorbent is 10% of the weight of the gas
 Very short arcing period
 Can interrupt much larger currents as compared to other breakers
 No risk of fire
 Low maintenance, light foundation, minimum auxiliary equipments
 No over voltage problem
Harnessing the utilities of SF6 gas in power system and power system equipments, makes it more reliable and safer to use.
The countless advantages this SF6 gas has to offer will take us to new heights in the prevalent orthodox power system.
Post: #6
Circuit Breaker Maintenance by Mobile Agent Software Technology

.pdf  45638657-Circuit-Breaker-Maintenance-Using-Mobile-Agent-Software.pdf (Size: 521.34 KB / Downloads: 68)


•A crucial component of power system operations
•Indispensable in switching for routine n/w operation + protection of other devices
•Hence, their maintenance is critical (periodical as well as preventive)

Need for remote maintenance

•CB condition monitoring at each operation
•Switch from TIME directed to CONDITION directed repair/maintenance
•Significant reduction in size and cost of maintenance crew
•Higher efficiency of maintenance as paper logging and referential system is done away with

CB maintenance tasks

•It is imperative that a CB stay in tip-top condition
•The task is made trickier given that a CB usually remains idle for long periods of time
•They include periodic inspection, test and replacement of worn or defective components
•Maintenance intervals are usually experience derived

Mobile Agent Software(MAS)

•uses high level flexible abstractions to represent systems
•they communicate with other agents by passing messages or by synchronisation
•3 types viz.
An Agent is an autonomous component which is capable of making reasonable and judicious decisions on behalf of the USER

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