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DNA computing
Post: #1

DNA computing

DNA computing is a form of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry and molecular biology, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies. DNA computing, or, more generally, molecular computing, is a fast developing interdisciplinary area. R&D in this area concerns theory, experiments and applications of DNA computing.


This field was initially developed by Leonard Adleman of the University of Southern California, in 1994[1] . Adleman demonstrated a proof-of-concept use of DNA as a form of computation which solved the seven-point Hamiltonian path problem. Since the initial Adleman experiments, advances have been made and various Turing machines have been proven to be constructible[2] [3].

In 2002, researchers from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, unveiled a programmable molecular computing machine composed of enzymes and DNA molecules instead of silicon microchips. [4]. On April 28, 2004, Ehud Shapiro, Yaakov Benenson, Binyamin Gil, Uri Ben-Dor, and Rivka Adar at the Weizmann Institute announced in the journal Nature that they had constructed a DNA computer[5]. This was coupled with an input and output module and is capable of diagnosing cancerous activity within a cell, and then releasing an anti-cancer drug upon diagnosis.


DNA computing is fundamentally similar to parallel computing in that it takes advantage of the many different molecules of DNA to try many different possibilities at once.

For certain specialized problems, DNA computers are faster and smaller than any other computer built so far. But DNA computing does not provide any new capabilities from the standpoint of computability theory, the study of which problems are computationally solvable using different models of computation. For example, problems which grow exponentially with the size of the problem (EXPSPACE problems) on von Neumann machines still grow exponentially with the size of the problem on DNA machines. For very large EXPSPACE problems, the amount of DNA required is too large to be practical. (Quantum computing, on the other hand, does provide some interesting new capabilities).

DNA computing overlaps with, but is distinct from, DNA nanotechnology. The latter uses the specificity of Watson-Crick basepairing and other DNA properties to make novel structures out of DNA. These structures can be used for DNA computing, but they do not have to be. Additionally, DNA computing can be done without using the types of molecules made possible by DNA nanotechnology (as the above examples show).



* Computational Genes

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Post: #2
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Post: #3
read this

Post: #4

.ppt  DNA computing.ppt (Size: 1.9 MB / Downloads: 38)

A nanocomputer that uses DNA (deoxyribonucleic acids) to store information and perform complex calculations.
DNA computers are the computers which using enzymes as a programme that processes on the dna molecules(input data)
A DNA computer is basically a collection of specially selected DNA strands whose combinations will result in the solution to some problem.
The promise of DNA computing is massive parallelism: with a given setup and enough DNA, one can potentially solve huge problems by parallel search.

Existing System

Conventional computers are used.
Conventional computers require large amount of hardware.

Proposed System

Proposed system is DNA computer has a great deal of advantage over conventional computers. DNA computers can store billions of times more data than personal computer. DNA computers have the ability to work in a massively parallel fashion, performing many calculations simultaneously.

What is Need?

Computers have become significantly smaller and more powerful over the past 40 years. It would be hard to believe where scientists have found the new material they need to build the next generation of microprocessors. Millions of natural supercomputers exist inside living organisms, including our body.

Interesting Facts:

DNA is the basic medium of information storage for all living cells. It has contained and transmitted the data of life for billions of years.
Roughly 10 trillion DNA molecules could fit into a space. Since all these molecules can process data simultaneously, you could theoretically have 10 trillion calculations going on in a small space at once.

Dense Information Storage:

This image shows 1 gram of DNA on a CD. The CD can hold 800 MB of data.
The 1 gram of DNA can hold about 1x1014 MB of data.
The number of CDs required to hold this amount of information, lined up edge to edge, would circle the Earth 375 times, and would take 163,000 centuries to listen to.


DNA computers use cheap, clean, and readily available materials, they store more information in less space, and especially that they can handle massive parallel processing.

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