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Tags: ELECTRONIC, ROAD, PRICING, SYSTEM, ELECTRONIC ROAD PRICING SYSTEM, electronic road pricing system in singapore, electronic road pricing system in hong kong, electronic road pricing system in malaysia, disadvantages of electronic road pricing system in singapore, electronic road pricing system pdf, electronic road pricing system ppt, electronic road pricing system singapore, electronic road pricing system technology, how electronic road pricing system works, how does electronic road pricing system work,
 
 
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ELECTRONIC ROAD PRICING SYSTEM
Post: #1

Electronic road pricing system (ERP) the motorists are charged
In Electronic road pricing system (ERP) the motorists are charged when they use the road during peak hours.
Thus system is used to prevent traffic congestions in roads and highways.
It uses a dedicated short range radio communication system to deduct ERP charges from cash cards.

Advantages of ERPS
--------------------
1. Congestion reduction
By introducing an ERPS, users will choose alternative routes, thus reducing the number of vehicles on congested roads.
This will provide an overall improvement in journey time, and increase the productivity and efficiency in work places.

2. Revenue generation
The ERPS will be self-funding, and profits will be used to maintain the road infrastructure.

3. Air Pollution
Emissions from vehicles are increased in stop-start conditions, caused by congestion. So by introducing ERPS the emission levels on the roads can be decreased.

Disadvantages of ERPS
-----------------------
1. Low Income Earners.
The introduction of the Road Pricing system will actually affect the people with lower income, in the sense that their expenditure will increase.

2. Movement of congestion from motorway to side roads.
In order to avoid using paid roads, drivers will try to shift their journey to side roads and thus increasing the traffic congestion elsewhere.

3. Privacy of drivers.
The fact that the system can record the movements of people using the charged road, the data can be used for other purposes, against them. Thus drivers may be reluctant to accept such a system.
Post: #2
give me link for report download for the above topic
Post: #3
pls give full report
Post: #4
reference link of these topics "ELECTRONIC ROAD PRICING SYSTEM" bellow...


http://project-seminars.com/Thread-elect...ing-system

http://www.seminarprojectstag/electronic...malaysia/2
Post: #5
ERP(Electronic Road Pricing)Technology


.ppt  ERP technology final.ppt (Size: 1.34 MB / Downloads: 130)
What is road pricing?


Road pricing is an economic concept regarding the various direct charges applied for the use of roads.

The road charges includes fuel taxes, license fees, parking taxes, tolls, and congestion charges, including those which may vary by time of day, by the specific road, or by the specific vehicle type, being used.


Electronic Road Pricing


Aim is to charge vehicles for the use of the road at times and at places of congestion

For congestion management

For raising road revenue

Every entry or pass under a control point is automatically charged a fee


About the system

The scheme consists of ERP gantries located at all busy roads & expressways with heavy traffic.
The gantry system is actually a system of sensors on 2 gantries, one in front of the other. Cameras are also attached to the gantries to capture the rear license plate numbers of vehicles.
A device known as an In-vehicle Unit (IU) is affixed on the lower right corner of the front windscreen within sight of the driver, in which a stored value card, the cash card, is inserted for payment of the road usage charges.
Post: #6
Electronic Road Pricing



.docx  Electronic Road Pricing.docx (Size: 589.51 KB / Downloads: 375)
The system

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (April 2008)
The scheme consists of ERP gantries located at all roads linking into Singapore's central business district - areas within the Central Area such as the Downtown Core. They are also located along the expressways and arterial roads with heavy traffic to discourage usage during peak hours. The gantry system is actually a system of sensors on 2 gantries, one in front of the other. Cameras are also attached to the gantries to capture the rear license plate numbers of vehicles. Currently, there are 80 ERP gantries in Singapore. New gantries are implemented where congestion is severe, like expressways and other roads.
A device known as an In-vehicle Unit (IU) is affixed on the lower right corner of the front windscreen within sight of the driver, in which a stored-value card, the CashCard, is inserted for payment of the road usage charges. The second generation IU accepts Contactless NETS CashCard and EZ-Link. The cost of an IU is S$150. It is mandatory for all Singapore-registered vehicles to be fitted with an IU if they wish to use the priced roads.
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd sold the IU technology to Singapore, and the project was spearheaded by a Consortium comprising Philips Singapore Pte Ltd, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd, Miyoshi Electronic Corporation and CEI Systems and Engineering (now known as CSE Global Ltd) in 1995 through an open tender.
When a vehicle equipped with an IU passes under an ERP gantry, a road usage charge is deducted from the CashCard in the IU. Sensors installed on the gantries communicate with the IU via a dedicated short-range communication system, and the deducted amount is displayed to the driver on an LCD screen of the IU.

Improvements and adaptations

According to a paper presented in the World Roads Conference 2006, the Land Transport Authority has been testing a system based on the Global Positioning System that may eventually replace the current Electronic Road Pricing system. The proposed system overcomes the inflexibility of having physical gantries, which "are not so flexible when it comes to re-locating them".
A lightweight version of this same technology is implemented for use on parking, known as the Electronic Parking System (EPS). It has since been adopted in favour by several carpark operators, superseding the use of autopay tickets or parking coupons. These systems have also typically switched to charging by the minute.

Impact

The ERP system, although understandably unpopular among most road users, has helped to tweak road usage patterns since its implementation. The LTA reported that road traffic decreased by nearly 25,000 vehicles during peak hours, with average road speeds increasing by about 20%. Within the restricted zone itself, traffic has gone down by about 13% during ERP operational hours, with vehicle numbers dropping from 270,000 to 235,000. It has been observed that car-pooling has increased, while the hours of peak vehicular traffic has also gradually eased and spread into off-peak hours, suggesting a more productive use of road space. In addition, it has been noted that average road speeds for expressways and major roads remained the same, despite rising traffic volumes over the years.

Latest developments

In an effort to improve the pricing mechanism and to introduce real-time variable pricing,[4] Singapore’s Land Transport Authority, together with IBM, ran a pilot from December 2006 to April 2007, with a traffic estimation and prediction tool (TrEPS), which uses historical traffic data and real-time feeds with flow conditions from several sources, in order to predict the levels of congestion up to an hour in advance. By accurate estimating prevailing and emerging traffic conditions, this technology is expected to allow variable pricing, together with improved overall traffic management, including the provision of information in advanced to alert drivers about conditions ahead, and the prices being charged at that moment.[5]

Similar systems in other metropolitan areas

In Toronto, Ontario, Canada an electronic road pricing system is used on Highway 407 to collect tolls electronically and billed to the owner of the car by taking a picture of its license plate.[10]
Despite the local public controversy, the ERP system attracted the attention of transport planners and managers in other metropolitan areas, particularly those in Europe and the United States. For example, the London Congestion Charge was introduced on 17 February 2003, after London officials visited Singapore to study the ERP system, and used it as a reference for the London system. London's charge area was expanded in 2007.[11]
The Stockholm congestion tax is also a congestion pricing system implemented as a tax which is levied on most vehicles entering and exiting central Stockholm, Sweden.[12] The congestion tax was implemented on a permanent basis on August 1, 2007,[13][14] after a seven-month trial period was held between January 3, 2006 and July 31, 2006.[15]
In 2007, Dubai, at the United Arab Emirates, implemented a corridor congestion pricing scheme called Salik which works on similar principles. Since January 2008, Milan introduced a traffic charge scheme as a one-year trial, called Ecopass, and exempts high emission standard vehicles and some alternate fuel vehicles.[16][17][18]
Post: #7
to get information about the topic "electronic road pricing system" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

http://project-seminars.com/Thread-elect...ing-system

http://project-seminars.com/Thread-elect...1#pid92101

Post: #8
I want to know advantage of self powered door bell watcher.
 

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