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Post: #1

Keshav Kumar
vinesh aggrawal asst.professor

.doc  Case study on future scope of Nanorobotics in medical field.doc (Size: 472.5 KB / Downloads: 187)

Robots have taken a great consideration in the medical field. The nano robots have created a revolutionary in the medical. They perform a rigorous operation such as heart surgery, changing a ligament etc Nanorobotics, just as with all nanotechnology is still in very early stages of development and as such is largely based within electronic engineering and physics and concerns micromachining, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)and Scanning Probe Microscopy methods. Research into any particular method for creation of nanorobots will largely depend on the group carrying out the research rather than the subject within which they are based. For instance, IBM research (gives an idea of the diversity of research within the computer based industry, Nanorobots can provide enormous impact for the development and implementation of advanced biomedical instrumentation with remarkable improvement to common clinical practice. It offers a cutting edge technology for diagnosis, drug delivery, laparoscopic nanosurgery, and health care, with therapeutic applications for cancer, diabetes, brain aneurysm, contagious diseases, and cardiology. Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometer (10-9 meters).Nanorobots (nanobots or nanoids) are typically devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components...

Precise control of the structure of matter a nanometer scale will have revolutionary implications for science and technology. Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) will be extremely small and fast, and have applications that range from cell repair to ultra strong materials to human internal fluids. This paper describes the first steps towards the construction of NEMS by assembling nanometer-scale objects using a Scanning Probe Microscope as a robot. This paper also describes different motions and mechanisms during the working of the Nanorobots. Our research takes an interdisciplinary approach that combines knowledge of macro robotics and computer science with the chemistry and physics of phenomena at the nanoscale. Nanorobotics is an emerging field that deals with the controlled manipulation of objects with nanometer-scale dimensions. Typically, an atom has a diameter of a few Ã…ngstroms (1 Ã… = 0.1 nm = 10-10 m), a molecule's size is a few nm, and clusters or nanoparticles formed by hundreds or thousands of atoms have sizes of tens of nm. Therefore, Nanorobotics is concerned with interactions with atomic- and molecular-sized objects-and is sometimes called Molecular Robotics. We use these two expressions, plus Nanomanipulation, as synonyms in this article. Another definition sometimes used is a robot which allows precision interactions with nanoscale objects, or can manipulate with nanoscale resolution. Nanomachines are largely in the research-and-development phase, but some primitive molecular machines have been tested. An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1.5 nanometers across, capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample.[1]

Potential applications for nanorobotics in medicine include early diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer, biomedical instrumentation, surgery, pharmacokinetics, monitoring of diabetes, and health care.
Molecular Robots
Molecular Robots is another term sometimes used for Nanorobotics. Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer. More specifically, nanorobotic refers to the still largely hypothetical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots, constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. As no artificial non-biological nanorobots have yet been created, they remain a hypothetical concept. Another definition sometimes used is a robot which allows precision interactions with nanoscale objects, or can manipulate with nanoscale resolution. Following this definition even a large apparatus such as an atomic force microscope can be considered a nanorobotic instrument when configured to perform nanomanipulation. Also macro scale robots or micro robots which can move with nanoscale precision can also be considered nanorobots.

It is the application of nanotechnology (engineering of tiny machines) to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human bodies. More specifically, it is the use of engineered nanodevices and nanostructures to monitor, repair, construct and control the human biological system on a molecular level. The most elementary of nanomedical devices will be used in the diagnosis of illnesses. A more advanced use of nanotechnology might involve implanted devices to dispense drugs or hormones as needed in people with chronic imbalance or deficiency states. Lastly, the most advanced nanomedicine involves the use of Nanorobots as miniature surgeons. Such machines might repair damaged cells, or get inside cells and replace or assist damaged intracellular structures. At the extreme, nanomachines might replicate themselves, or correct genetic deficiencies by altering or replacing DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules.[2]
Introduce the device into the body:
.The first is that the size of the nanomachine determines the minimum size of the blood vessel that it can traverse. We want to avoid damaging the walls of whatever blood vessel the device is in, we also do not want to block it much, which would either cause a clot to form, or just slow or stop the blood flow. What this means is that the smaller the nanomachine the better. However, this must

circulatory system

Be balanced against the fact that the larger the nanomachine the more versatile and effective it can be. This is especially important in light of the fact that external control problems become much more difficult if we are trying to use multiple machines, even if they don't get in each other's way. [3]
The second consideration is we have to get it into the body without being too destructive in the first place. This requires that we gain access to a large diameter artery that can be traversed easily to gain access to most areas

femoral artery
of the body in minimal time. The obvious candidate is the femoral artery in the leg. This is in fact the normal access point to the circulatory system for operations that require access to the bloodstream for catheters, dye injections, etc., so it will suit our purposes.
Move the device around the body:
We must then consider two possibilities: (a) carried to the site of operations,(b) to be propelled
The first possibility is to allow the device to be carried to the site of operations by means of normal blood flow. There are a number of requirements for this method. We must be able to navigate the bloodstream; to be able to guide the device so as to make use of the blood flow. This also requires that there be an uninterrupted blood flow to the site of operations. In the case of tumors, there is very often damage to the circulatory system that would prevent our device from passively navigating to the site. In the case of blood clots, of course, the flow of blood is dammed and thus our device would not be carried to the site without the capability for active movement. Another problem with this method is that it would be difficult to remain at the site without some means of maintaining position, either by means of an anchoring technique, or by actively moving against the current. [6]
1. Propeller: An electric motor that fit within a cube 1/64th of an inch on a side is used. This is probably smaller than we would need for our preliminary microrobot. One or several of these motors could be used to power propellers that would push (or pull) the microrobot through the bloodstream. We would want to use a shrouded blade design so as to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues (and to the propellers) during the inevitable collisions.[4]
2. Crawl along surface: Rather than have the device float in the blood, or in various fluids, the device could move along the walls of the circulatory system by means of appendages with specially designed tips, allowing for a firm grip without excessive damage to the tissue. It must be able to do this despite surges in the flow of blood caused by the beating of the heart, and do it without tearing through a blood vessel or constantly being torn free and swept away.

along the wall of vessel
For any of these techniques to be practical, they must each meet certain requirements:
The device must be able to move at a practical speed against the flow of blood.
The device must be able to move when blood is pooling rather than flowing steadily.
The device must be able to move in surges, so as to be able to get through the heart without being stuck, in the case of emergencies.
Movement of the device:
The next problem to consider is exactly how to detect the problem tissue that must be treated. We need two types of sensors. Long-range sensors will be used to allow us to navigate to the site of the unwanted tissue. We must be able to locate a tumor, blood clot or deposit of arterial plaque closely enough so that the use of short-range sensors is practical. These would be used during actual operations, to allow the device to distinguish between healthy and

Unwanted tissue... The first is to determine the location of the operations site; that is, the location of the clot, tumor or whatever is the unwanted tissue. The second purpose is to gain a rough idea of where the microrobot is in relation to that tissue. This information will be used to navigate close enough to the operations site that short-range sensors will be useful.[5]
(1).Ultrasonic: This technique can be used in either the active or the passive mode. In the active mode, an ultrasonic signal is beamed into the body, and either reflected back, received on the other side of the body, or a combination of both. The received signal is processed to obtain information about the material through which it has passed.detailed position information.
(2).NMR/MRI: This technique involves the application of a powerful magnetic field to the body, and subsequent analysis of the way in which atoms within the body react to the field.

It usually requires a prolonged period to obtain useful results, often several hours, and thus is not suited to real-time applications. While the performance can be increased greatly, the resolution is inherently low due to the difficulty of switching large magnetic fields quickly, and thus, while it may be suited in some cases to the original diagnosis, it is of only very limited use to us at present.
(3).X-ray: rays as a technique have their good points and bad points. On the plus side, they are powerful enough to be able to pass through tissue, and show density changes in that tissue. This makes them very useful for locating cracks and breaks in hard, dense tissue such as bones and teeth. On the other hand, they go through soft tissue so much .

mobile X-ray
More easily that an X-ray scan designed to show breaks in bone goes right through soft tissue without showing much detail. On the other hand, a scan designed for soft tissue can’t get through if there is any bone blocking the path of the x-rays.[7]
Control the device:
We consider the case of internal sensors. When we say internal sensors, we mean sensors that are an integral part of the microrobot and are used by it to make the final approach to the operation site and analyze the results of its operations. These sensors will be of two types. The first type will be used to do the final navigation. When the device is within a short distance of the operation site, these sensors will be used to help it find the rest of the path, beyond what the external sensors can do. The second type of sensor will be used during the actual operation, to guide the microrobot to the tissue that should be removed and away from tissue that should not be removed.
(1).Chemical: Chemical sensors can be used to detect trace chemicals in the bloodstream and use the relative concentrations of those chemicals to determine the path to take to reach the unwanted tissue. This would require several sensors so as to be able to establish a chemical gradient, the alternative would be to try every path, and retrace a path when the blood chemicals diminish. While it is not difficult to create a solid-state sensor for a given chemical, the difficulty increases greatly when the number of chemicals that must be analyzed increases. (2).Spectroscopic: This would involve taking continuous small samples of the surrounding tissue and analyzing them for the appropriate chemicals. This could be done either with a high-powered laser diode or by means of an electrical arc to vaporize small amounts of tissue. The laser diode is more practical due to the difficulty of striking an arc in a liquid medium and also due to the side effects possible when sampling near nerve tissue..
(3).TV camera: This method involves us having a TV camera in the device and transmitting its picture outside the body to a remote control station, allowing the people operating the device to steer it. One disadvantage of this technique is the relatively high complexity of the sensors. On the other hand, solid-state television sensors are an extremely well developed technology and it should not be difficult to further develop it to the level needed. This could be combined with the laser diode at low power .
Means of treatment:
The treatment for each of the medical problems is the same in general; we must remove the tissue or substance from the body. This can be done in one of several ways. We can break up the clump of substance and rely on the body’s normal processes to eliminate it. Alternately, we can destroy the substance before allowing the body to eliminate the results. We can use the microrobot to physically remove the unwanted tissue. We can also use the microrobot to enhance other efforts being performed, and increase their effectiveness.
(1).Physical removal: This method can be effective in the treatment of arteriosclerosis. In this case, a blade, probe or edge of some sort can be used to physically separate deposits of plaque from the artery walls. The bloodstream would carry these deposits away, to be eliminated by the normal mechanisms of the body.
(2).Physical trauma: Another way of dealing with the unwanted tissues is by destroying them in situ. This would avoid damaging the cancerous cells and releasing chemicals into the bloodstream. In order to do this effectively, we need a means of destroying the cell without rupturing the cell wall until after it is safe. We shall consider a number of methods
(a)Resonant microwaves/Ultrasonic:
Rather than merely apply microwave/infrared or ultrasonic energy at random frequencies, the frequency of the energy could be applied at the specific frequencies needed to disrupt specific chemical bonds. This would allow us to make sure that the tumor producing chemicals created by cancerous cells would be largely destroyed, with the remaining amounts, if any, disposed of by the body’s natural defenses.
(b)Heat: The use of heat to destroy cancerous tumors would seem to be a reasonable approach to take. There are a number of ways in which we can apply heat, each with advantages and disadvantages of their own. While the general technique is to apply relatively low levels of heat for prolonged periods of time, we can apply much higher levels for shorter periods of time to get the same effect.
( c )Microwave: Microwave radiation is directed at the cancerous cells, raising their temperature for a period of time, causing the death of the cells in question. This is normally done by raising the temperature of the cells to just enough above body temperature to kill them after many minutes of exposure.
(d)Ultrasonic: An ultrasonic signal, which can be generated by a piezoelectric membrane or any other rapidly vibrating object, is directed at, and absorbed by, the cells being treated. This energy is converted to heat, raising the temperature of the cells and killing.
(e)Power from the bloodstream: There are three possibilities for this scenario. In the first case, the microrobot would have electrodes mounted on its outer casing that would combine with the electrolytes in the blood to form a battery. This would result in a low voltage, but it would last until the electrodes were used up. The disadvantage of this method is that in the case of a clot or arteriosclerosis, there might not be enough blood flow to sustain the required
Power to Nanorobots:
In this case, the power would be transmitted to the microrobot from outside the body. This can be done in a number of different ways, but it boils down to two possibilities. The first is to transmit the power by means of a physical connection, and the second, of course, is to transmit it without a physical connection.
(a)Physical connection: In the first case, we would need some sort of wire or cable to carry power between the microrobot and the outside power source. Problems faced are the first, of course, is that the wire needs to be able to reach inside the body to where the microrobot is. This means that it must be thin enough to fit down every blood vessel that the microrobot can enter.
(b)No physical connection: we are transmitting power to the microrobot without the use of wires or any sort of physical means to transfer the power.
2.Induced magnetic
Means of recovery from the body:
Given sufficiently accurate control of the nanomachine, or a tether, this is not a problem; we can just retrace our path upstream. However, it would be a lot easier, and recommended, to steer a path through the body that traverses major blood vessels and winds up at a point where we can just filter the nanomachine out of the bloodstream. This will reduce the possibilities for difficulties, and also cause less wear and tear on the nanomachine. Of course, either scenario is a possibility, depending on where the actual operation site is. Another possibility is to have the nanomachine anchor itself to a blood vessel that is easily accessible from outside, and perform a small surgical operation to remove it.
Application of nanorobots:
1. Tumors: We must be able to treat tumors; that is to say, cells grouped in a clumped mass. While the technique may eventually be used to treat small numbers of cells in lung tumor
The bloodstream, The specified goal is to be able to destroy tumorous tissue in such a way as to minimize the risk of causing or allowing a recurrence of the growth in the body. The technique is intended to be able to treat tumors that cannot be accessed via conventional surgery, such as deep brain tumors.
2. Arteriosclerosis: This is caused by fatty deposits on the walls of arteries. The device should be able to remove these deposits from the
artery walls. This will allow for both improving the flexibility of the walls of the arteries and improving the blood flow through them. In view of the years it takes to accumulate these deposits, simply removing them from the artery walls and leaving them in the bloodstream should allow the body’s natural processes to remove the overwhelming preponderance of material.
3. Blood clots: The cause damage when they travel to the bloodstream to a point where they can block the flow of blood to vital area of the body. This can result in damage to vital organs in very short order. In many if not most cases, these
Blood clot
blood clots are only detected when they cause a blockage and damage the organ in question, often but not always the brain. By using a micro robot in the body to break up such clots into smaller pieces before they have a chance to break free and move on their own
4. Kidney stones:

By introducing a micro robot into the urethra in a manner similar to that of inserting a catheter, direct access to the kidney stones can be obtained, and they can be broken up directly. This can be done either by means of ultrasonic directly applied, or by the use of a laser or other means of applying intense local heat to cause the stones to break up.
Kidney stones
5. Liver stones: Liver stones accumulate in the bile duct. Micro robots of the above type can be introduced into the bile duct and used to
Stones Inside Liver Bile Ducts
Break up the liver stones as well. By continuing on up the bile duct into the liver, they can clear away accumulated deposits of unwanted minerals and other substances as well.
6. Burn and wound debriding: The micro robots can also be used to clean wounds and burns. Their size allows them to be very useful for removing dirt and foreign particles from incised and punctured wounds, as well as from burns. They can be used to do a more complete and less traumatic job than conventional techniques.
7. Remove or break down tar, etc in lungs: They could be very useful for the treatment of dirty lungs. This could be done by removing particles of tar and other pollutants from the surface of the alveoli, and placing them where the natural processes of the body can dispose of them. This would require a micro robot capable of moving within the lungs, on alveolar surfaces as well as
Break down of tar
Over the mucus layer and over the cilia within the lungs.

Nanomedicine will eliminate virtually all common diseases of the 20th century, virtually all medical pain and suffering, allow extension of human capabilities, especially our mental abilities.
A nanostructured data storage device about the size of a human liver cell implanted in the brain could store a large amount of data and provides extremely rapid access to this information. But perhaps the most important long-term benefit to human society as a whole could be the dawning of a new era of peace. We could hope that people who are independently well fed, well-clothed, well-housed, smart, well educated, healthy and happy will have little motivation to make war. Human beings who have a reasonable prospect of living many "normal" lifetimes will learn patience from experience, and will be extremely unlikely to risk those "many lifetimes" for any but the most compelling of reasons.
Finally, and perhaps most importantly, no actual working nanorobot has yet been built. Many theoretical designs have been proposed that look good on paper, but these preliminary designs could change significantly after necessary research, development testing has been completed.

Post: #2

.doc  APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTICS IN MEDICINE.doc (Size: 263.5 KB / Downloads: 93)

Robots in medicine deserve enhanced attention, being a field where their instrumental ids enable exacting options. The availability of oriented effectors, capable to get into the human body with no or negligible impact, is challenge, evolving while micro-mechanics aims at nanotechnology. The survey addresses sets of known achievements, singling out noteworthy autonomous in body devices, either co-robotic surgical aids, in view of recognizing shared benefits or hindrances, to explore how to conceive effective tools, tailored to answer given demands, while remaining within established technologies.
Robotics for medical applications started fifteen years ago while for biological applications it is rather new (about five years old). Robotic surgery can accomplish what doctors cannot because of precision and repeatability of robotic systems. Besides, robots are able to operate in a contained space inside the human body. All these make robots especially suitable for non-invasive or minimally invasive surgery and for better outcomes of surgery. Today, robots have been demonstrated or routinely used for heart, brain, and spinal cord, throat, and knee surgeries at many hospitals in the United States (International Journal of Emerging Medical Technologies, 2005).
Nanorobotics is the still largely hypothetical technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometer(10-9meters). Also known as nanobots or nanites, they would be constructed from nanoscale or molecular components. So far, researchers have only been able to produce some parts of such a machine, such as bearings, sensors, and synthetic molecular motors, but they hope to be able to create entire robots as small as viruses or bacteria, which could perform tasks on a tiny scale. Possible applications include micro surgery (on the level of individual cells), utility fog, manufacturing, weaponry and cleaning. This presentation provides a survey of current developments, in the spirit of focusing the trends toward the said turn.
Robotics is a field that has many exciting potential applications. It is also a field in which expectations of the public often do not match current realities. Truly incredible capabilities are being sought and demonstrated in research laboratories around the world. However, it is very difficult to build a mechanical device (e.g., a robotic arm) that has dexterity comparable to a human’s limbs. It is even more difficult to build a computer system that can perceive its environment, reason about the environment and the task at hand, and control a robotic arm with anything remotely approaching the capabilities of a human being.
History of robotics
The word robot (from the Czech word robota meaning compulsory labor) was defined by the Robotic Institute of America as “a machine in the form of a human being that performs the mechanical functions of a human being but lacks sensitivity.” One of the first robots developed was by Leonardo da Vinci in 1495; a mechanical armored knight that was used to amuse royalty. This was then followed by creation of the first operational robot by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, in which an automated loom, controlled by punch cards, created a reproducible pattern woven into cloth. Issac Asimov further elucidated the role of robotics in 1940 through short stories; however, it was his three laws of robotics that received popular acclaim. The three laws state1) A robot may not injure a human being, or through inaction allow a human being to come to harm2)A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with First Law and 3) A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law
Applications in Medicine
Robots are filling an increasingly important role of enhancing patient safety in the hurried pace of clinics and hospitals where attention to details and where reliability are essential. In recent years, robots are moving closer to patient care, compared with their previous role as providing services in the infrastructure of medicine. Examples of past use are in repetitive activities of cleaning floors and washing equipment and carrying hot meals to patients’ bedside. What is new is finding them in clinical laboratories identifying and measuring blood and other specimen for testing, and in pharmacies counting pills and delivering them to nurses on ‘med-surg-units’ or ICU’s. Or bringing banked blood from the laboratory to the ED, surgery, or ICU for transfusions. Robots are being used as very accurate ‘go-fors’!
An early active robot, ‘Robodoc’ was designed to mill perfectly round lumens in the shafts of fractured bones, to improve the bonding of metal replacements such as for femur heads, and knee joints. The future of this system remains uncertain because of questions about the ultimate beneficial outcomes.
The reasons behind the interest in the adoption of medical robots are multitudinous. Robots provide industry with something that is, to them, more valuable than even the most dedicated and hard-working employee - namely speed, accuracy, repeatability, reliability, and cost-efficiency. A robotic aid, for example, one that holds a viewing instrument for a surgeon, will not become fatigued, for however long it is used. It will position the instrument accurately with no tremor, and it will be able to perform just as well on the 100th occasion as it did on the first.
Robotic surgery
Robotic surgery is the process whereby a robot actually carries out a surgical procedure under the control of nothing other than its computer program. Although a surgeon almost certainly will be involved in the planning of the procedure to be performed and will also observe the implementation of that plan, the execution of the plan will not be accomplished by them - but by the robot.
In order to look at the different issues involved in the robotic fulfillment of an operation, the separate sections of a typical robotic surgery (although robotic surgery is far from typical) are explained below.
Surgical planning
Surgical planning consists of three main parts. These are imaging the patient, creating a satisfactory three-dimensional (3D) model of the imaging data, and planning/rehearsing the operation. The imaging of the patient may be accomplished via various means. The main method is that of computer tomography (CT). CT is the process whereby a stack
Of cross-sectional views of the patient are taken using magnetic-resonance-imaging or x-ray methods. This kind of imaging is necessary for all types of operative procedure and, as such, does not differ from traditional surgical techniques.
A patient having a brain scan
This two-dimensional (2D) data must then be converted into a 3D model of the patient (or, more usually, of the area of interest). The reasons for this transformation are twofold. Firstly, the 2D data, by its very nature, is lacking in information. The patient is, obviously, a 3D object and, as such, occupies a spatial volume. Secondly, it is more accurate and intuitive for a surgeon, when planning a procedure, to view the data in the form that it actually exists. It should be noted, however, that the speed of said hardware is increasing all the time and the price will decrease too, as the technology involved becomes more commonplace. This means that the process will be more cost-efficient and increasingly routine in the future.
The third phase of the planning is the actual development of the plan itself. This involves determining the movements and forces of the robot in a process called ‘path planning’ - literally planning the paths that the robot will follow.
A surgery simulation to aid planning
It is here that the 3D patient model comes into play, as it is where all the measurements and paths are taken from. This emphasizes the importance of the accuracy of the model, as any errors will be interpreted as absolute fact by the surgeons (and hence the robot) in their determination of the plan.
Registration of robot to patient
The registration of the robot and the patient is the correlation of the robot’s data about the patient with the actual patient, in terms of positioning. There are two important stages in the registration procedure - fixation of the patient and the robot, and intra-surgical registration itself. Fixation is an essential ingredient of a successful robotic operation. Robots act upon pre-programmed paths , these programs are much more complex if they must take into account the fact that the patient’s position may be different to the inputted data and, in fact, continually changing. For this reason it is imperative that the robot can act in, at least, a semi-ordered environment.
Fixation of the patient that is fixing the patient in position (i.e. on the operating table), is achieved through strapping and clamping of the areas pertinent to the surgery. This is common in traditional surgery, too. For example, the head is fixed in position during neurosurgery through the application of a head-fixation device known as a ‘stereo tactic unit’. Fixation of the robot is achieved through analogous methods.

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