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Internet Protocol (IP)
Post: #1

Internet Protocol (IP)

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol used for relaying datagrams (packets) across an internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite. Responsible for routing packets across network boundaries, it is the primary protocol that establishes the Internet.
IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering datagrams from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses. For this purpose, IP defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation.
IP is a connectionless protocol and does not need circuit setup prior to transmission.
the Internet Protocol only provides best effort delivery and its service can also be characterized as unreliable.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth revision in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP) and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed.

IPv4 uses 32-bit (four-byte) addresses, which limits the address space to 4,294,967,296 (232) possible unique addresses. However, some are reserved for special purposes such as private networks (~18 million addresses) or multicast addresses (~270 million addresses). This reduces the number of addresses that can potentially be allocated for routing on the public Internet. As addresses are being incrementally delegated to end users, an IPv4 address shortage has been developing


Originally, an IP address was divided into two parts, the network identifier represented in the most significant (highest order) octet of the address and the host identifier using the rest of the address. The latter was therefore also called the rest field. This enabled the creation of a maximum of 256 networks. Quickly this was found to be inadequate.
Post: #2

.ppt  INTERNET PROTOCOL.ppt (Size: 320.5 KB / Downloads: 123)
IP as a Routed Protocol

IP is a connectionless, unreliable, best-effort delivery protocol.
IP accepts whatever data is passed down to it from the upper layers and forwards the data in the form of IP Packets.
All the nodes are identified using an IP address.
Packets are delivered from the source to the destination using IP address.

IP Address

IP address is for the INTERFACE of a host. Multiple interfaces mean multiple IP addresses, i.e., routers.
32 bit IP address in dotted-decimal notation for ease of reading, i.e.,
Address, and carries special meaning.
IP address is divided into a network number and a host number.
Also bits in Network or Host Address cannot be all 0 or 1.

IP Address, Subnet Mask and Gateway

IP Address and Subnet Mask define the Subnet
For Example IP address and Subnet Mask of means that the subnet address ranges from to
Another notation is
The first Address is the Network Address and the last Address is the Broadcast Address. They are reserved and cannot be assigned to any node.
The Gateway Address is the Address of the router where the packet should be sent in case the destination host does not belong to the same subnet.


Internet Protocol Version 4 is the most popular protocol in use today, although there are some questions about its capability to serve the Internet community much longer.
IPv4 was finished in the 1970s and has started to show its age.
The main issue surrounding IPv4 is addressing—or, the lack of addressing—because many experts believe that we are nearly out of the four billion addresses available in IPv4.
Although this seems like a very large number of addresses, multiple large blocks are given to government agencies and large organizations.
IPv6 could be the solution to many problems posed by IPv4.
Post: #3
The Internet Protocol (IP)

.ppt  internet_protocol.ppt (Size: 1.77 MB / Downloads: 66)
Introduction to IP

The network protocol in the Internet
IP address  Network ID + Host ID
Transmit datagrams from one host to another. if necessary, via intermediate routers
Network Information Center(NIC)
Unreliable packet delivery
Only header check sum
When an IP datagram is longer than the MTU of the underlying network broken into smaller packets at the source, and
reassembled at the final destination

IPV4 Addressing

Classless InterDomain Routing(CIDR)
 Problem of shortage of IP address (scarify of class B, plenty of class C)
 Allocate a batch of contiguous class C address to a subnet requiring more than 255 addresses
 Add a mask field to the routing table
 IETF RFC 1519 (1993)

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