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introduction to press working
Post: #1

.ppt  Introduction to Press working.ppt (Size: 69 KB / Downloads: 662)

Introduction to Press working

Press working may be defined as chip less manufacturing process by which various components are made from sheet metal.
This process is also called cold stamping
These process are genrally carried out at room temprature
Classification of press operatons

The operations done on sheet metal can be classified into two types
Cutting operations
- In cutting operations the work piece is stressed beyond its ultimate strength. the stress caused in metal by applied forces will be shearing stresses e.g-blankng,piercing ,trimming, shaving
Forming operations- the stresses are below the ultimate strenth of metal. In these operation there is no cutting forces but only contour of work piece is changed to get the desired product

Various press working operations


Press working eqipments

Sources of power
Method of actuation of ram/rams
Number of slides
Type of frame
Type of work for which press has been designed

Types of press

Fly press
Open back inclineable press
Straight side single crank press
Ecentric press
Double actiom crank press
One point press
Two point press
Double and triple action press
Friction screw press
Hydraulic press

Basic elements of press

Capacity “The capacity of press is generally governed by aspects like tonnage, stroke, space for mounting, number of stroke per minute and length of stroke
Press action “ refers to whether machine has single action of slide or double or triple
Mechanism “ refers to that the machine is crank operated, eccentric operated, hydraulic operated or pneumatic operated
Frame design “ in most of cases the open back inclinable frame which facilitates ejecting the part by gravity is preferred

Accessories of common press

C- frame
Crank shaft
Tie rods


Working components “ dies ,punches and their sections
Structural components “ upper shoe punch holder), lower shoe ( die holder) and shanks
Guiding components “ guide posts and bushings
Feeding components - feed the stock strip or blank to the stamping station
Locating and locking components “ locating pins and rings
Stripping components “ strippers, push off pins ,knockouts
Fastening components “ all fasteners

Press working terminology

Bolister plate
Die set
Shut height
Die block
Lower shoe
Upper shoe
Punch plate
Back up plate


1. Cutting force
2. Smallest hole that can be punched
3. Clearence in die and punch
4. Die block design
5. Punch design


P = 3.14*D*T*Fs for round hole
P= L*t*Fs for other profiles
where P=cutting force reiqured
D=diameter of hole
T=thickness of material
Fs=shearing force or ultimate shear stress
L= perimeter of material

Smallest hole that can be punched

Here d=dia of smallest hole
t=thickness of material
Fs=ultimate shear stress
Fc=allowable compressive strength of punch material
P=cutting force

Clearence in die and punch

Clearence in die is given in case of piercing operation
Clearence in punch is given in case of blanking operation
Value of clearence is 3% to8% of t where t is thickness of material
Other clearences given in die are angular clearences

Cutting force calculations

C=cutting force in tons
L=length of cutting edge, inches
T=thickness of stock material, inches
S=shear strength of stock material, tons

Method to reduce cutting forces

Providing stepped or staggerd punches
Providing single shear
Providing double shear

Centre of pressure

When the shape of blank to be cut is irregular, the summation of shear force about the centre line of pressure may not be symmetrical due to this the bending movements will be introduced in press ram producing undesireable deflection and misalignment
To avoid this centre of pressure must be calculated while laying punch position on punch holder

Types of die sets

Simple die set
Compound die set
Progressive die set
Multiple die set

Types of punches

Plain punches or headed punch
Peen headed punch
Quilled punch

Critical stages in shearing action of metal

Plastic deformation

Strip layout

Economic stock utilizations of high importance a design engineer should aim for a goal at least there must be 75% stock utilization.
In preparing layout it should be observed that the distance between nearest two points of blank and between blanks and also edge of sheet to first blank in no case be less than sheet thickness

Sheet metal shaping operations

Various sheet metal shaping operations are

About bending operations

Bending is the metal working process by which straight length is transformed into curved length
During this operation the outer surface of metal is under tension and inner surface is in compression

Types of bending

Edge bending

Forming dies

Solid form dies
Pressure pad forming dies
Curling dies
Embossing dies
Coining dies
Bulging dies
Assembly dies

Drawing operation

Drawing is operation of producing cylindrical or box shaped components with straight or tapered edges
In drawing the area of developed blank before drawing should be same as the surface area of metal in drawing
Thickness of material remains unaltered
Post: #2
can i get more knowledge about fundamentals of pressworking

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