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Post: #1


.pdf  51355420-LAB-MANUAL-FOR-E-E-CS.pdf (Size: 523.09 KB / Downloads: 95)


1. Input Power =Wattmeter reading × Multiplication factor in Watts
Multiplication factor =
2.Output power = VSY × ISY × cosf in Watts.
Where VSY - Secondary Voltage in Volts.
ISY- Secondary current in Amps.
3.Percentage of Efficiency = × 100 %
4.Percentage of Regulation = × 100 %
Where, VO – No Load Voltage in Volts
VL – Load Voltage in Volts


• No Load Condition should be observed at the time of starting
• Meters are checked for proper Type and rating.
• Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
• The SPST Switch on the Primary side is closed and the DPST Switch on the Secondary side is
• The Autotransformer is adjusted to Energize the transformer with rated Primary Voltage
• The Volt meters and Ammeters Readings are noted and tabulated at No load condition
• The DPST switch on the secondary side is closed.
• The transformer is loaded upto 130% of the Rated Load, corresponding Ammeters, Voltmeters
and Wattmeters readings are noted and tabulated.
• After the observation of all the readings the load is released gradually to its initial position.
• The Autotransformer is brought to its initial position
• The Supply is switched off.


The graph drawn as
• Output power Vs Efficiency
• Output power Vs Regulation
Post: #2
Single Phase Transformer

.docx  1Single Phase.docx (Size: 362.4 KB / Downloads: 89)

O.C. and S.C. Tests on Single Phase Transformer

The efficiency and regulation of a transformer on any load condition and at any power factor condition can be predetermined by indirect loading method. In this method, the actual load is not used on transformer. But the equivalent circuit parameters of a transformer are determined by conducting two tests on a transformer which are,
1. Open circuit test (O.C Test)
2. Short circuit test (S.C.Test)
The parameters calculated from these test results are effective in determining the regulation and efficiency of a transformer at any load and power factor condition, without actually loading the transformer. The advantage of this method is that without much power loss the tests can be performed and results can be obtained. Let us discuss in detail how to perform these tests and how to use the results to calculate equivalent circuit parameters.

Open Circuit Test (O.C. Test)

The transformer primary is connected to a.c. supply through ammeter, wattmeter and variac. The secondary of transformer is kept open. Usually low voltage side is used as primary and high voltage side as secondary to conduct O.C test.
The primary is excited by rated voltage, which is adjusted precisely with the help of a variac. The wattmeter measures input power. The ammeter measures input current. The voltemeter gives the value of rated primary voltage applied at rated frequency.
Sometimes a voltmeter may be connected across secondary to measure secondary voltage which is V2 = E2 when primary is supplied with rated voltage. As voltmeter resistance is very high, though voltmeter is connected, secondary is treated to be open circuit as voltmeter current is always negligibly small.
When the primary voltage is adjusted to its rated value with the help of variac, readings of ammeter and wattmeter are to be recorded. The observation table is as follows

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