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Post: #1

.docx  automatic car parking system-1.docx (Size: 362.58 KB / Downloads: 565)
RFID is a very useful technology in automation of Car Parking System in a Mall/Building. It will automatically deduct the amount from the RFID tag of vehicle owner and open the door for parking and increment the counter of parking. Similarly it will open the door on exit and decrement the parking counter. It will also provide the security besides automation of parking through RFID technology. There is no waiting time for manual processing of receipts.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. The technology requires some extent of cooperation of an RFID reader and an RFID tag.
An RFID tag is an object that can be applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.
An RFID tag is an object that can be applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.
What is RFID?
A basic RFID system consists of three components:
a) An antenna or coil
b) A transceiver (with decoder)
c) A transponder (RF tag)
Electronically programmed with unique information. There are many different types of RFID systems out in the market. They are categorized according to there frequency ranges. Some of the most commonly used RFID kits are as follows:
1) Low-frequency (30 KHz to 500 KHz)
2) Mid-Frequency (900KHz to 1500MHz)
3) High Frequency (2.4GHz to 2.5GHz)
These frequency ranges mostly tell the RF ranges of the tags from low frequency tag ranging from 3m to 5m, mid-frequency ranging from 5m to 17m and high frequency ranging from 5ft to 90ft. The cost of the system is based according to there ranges with low-frequency system ranging from a few hundred dollars to a high-frequency system ranging somewhere near 5000 dollars.
How RFID Is Changing the Business Environment today
Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been in use for several decades to track and identify goods, assets and even living things. Recently, however, RFID has generated widespread corporate interest as a means to improve supply chain performance. Market activity has been exploding since Wal-Mart's June 2003 announcement that its top 100 suppliers must be RFID-compliant by January 2005. Mandates from Wal-Mart and the Department of Defense (DoD) are making many companies scramble to evaluate, select and implement solutions that will make them compliant with their customers' RFID requirements and additional retailers and other large supply chain channel masters are likely to follow suit.
A basic RFID system consist of three components:
• An antenna or coil
• A transceiver (with decoder)
• A transponder (RF tag) electronically programmed with unique information
These are described below:
The antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and read and write data to it. Antennas are the conduits between the tag and the transceiver, which controls the system's data acquisition and communication. Antennas are available in a variety of shapes and sizes; they can be built into a door frame to receive tag data from persons or things passing through the door, or mounted on an interstate tollbooth to monitor traffic passing by on a freeway. The electromagnetic field produced by an antenna can be constantly present when multiple tags are expected continually. If constant interrogation is not required, a sensor device can activate the field.
Often the antenna is packaged with the transceiver and decoder to become a reader (a.k.a. interrogator), which can be configured either as a handheld or a fixed-mount device. The reader emits radio waves in ranges of anywhere from one inch to 100 feet or more, depending upon its power output and the radio frequency used. When an RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it detects the reader's activation signal. The reader decodes the data encoded in the tag's integrated circuit (silicon chip) and the data is passed to the host computer for processing.
2. TAGS (Transponders)
An RFID tag is comprised of a microchip containing identifying information and an antenna that transmits this data wirelessly to a reader. At its most basic, the chip will contain a serialized identifier, or license plate number, that uniquely identifies that item,
similar to the way many bar codes are used today. A key difference, however is that RFID tags have a higher data capacity than their bar code counterparts. This increases the options for the type of information that can be encoded on the tag, including the manufacturer, batch or lot number, weight, ownership, destination and history (such as the temperature range to which an item has been exposed). In fact, an unlimited list of other types of information can be stored on RFID tags, depending on application needs. An RFID tag can be placed on individual items, cases or pallets for identification purposes, as well as on fixed assets such as trailers, containers, totes, etc.
Tags come in a variety of types, with a variety of capabilities. Key variables include:
"Read-only" versus "read-write"
There are three options in terms of how data can be encoded on tags: (1) Read-only tags contain data such as a serialized tracking number, which is pre-written onto them by the tag manufacturer or distributor. These are generally the least expensive tags because they cannot have any additional information included as they move throughout the supply chain. Any updates to that information would have to be maintained in the application software that tracks SKU movement and activity. (2) "Write once" tags enable a user to write data to the tag one time in production or distribution processes. Again, this may include a serial number, but perhaps other data such as a lot or batch number. (3) Full "read-write" tags allow new data to be written to the tag as needed—and even written over the original data. Examples for the latter capability might include the time and date
of ownership transfer or updating the repair history of a fixed asset. While these are the most costly of the three tag types and are not practical for tracking inexpensive items, future standards for electronic product codes (EPC) appear to be headed in this direction.
Data capacity

The amount of data storage on a tag can vary, ranging from 16 bits on the low end to as much as several thousand bits on the high end. Of course, the greater the storage capacity, the higher the price per tag.
Form factor
The tag and antenna structure can come in a variety of physical form factors and can either be self-contained or embedded as part of a traditional label structure (i.e., the tag is inside what looks like a regular bar code label—this is termed a 'Smart Label') companies must choose the appropriate form factors for the tag very carefully and should expect to use multiple form factors to suit the tagging needs of different physical products and units of measure. For example, a pallet may have an RFID tag fitted only to an area of protected placement on the pallet itself. On the other hand, cartons on the pallet have RFID tags inside bar code labels that also provide operators human-readable information and a back-up should the tag fail or pass through non RFID-capable supply chain links.
Passive versus active
“Passive” tags have no battery and "broadcast" their data only when energized by a reader. That means they must be actively polled to send information. "Active" tags are capable of broadcasting their data using their own battery power. In general, this means that the read ranges are much greater for active tags than they are for passive tags—perhaps a read range of 100 feet or more, versus 15 feet or less for most passive tags. The extra capability and read ranges of active tags, however, come with a cost; they are several times more expensive than passive tags. Today, active tags are much more likely to be used for high-value items or fixed assets such as trailers, where the cost is minimal compared to item value, and very long read ranges are required. Most traditional supply chain applications, such as the RFID-based tracking and compliance programs emerging in the consumer goods retail chain, will use the less expensive passive tags.
Like all wireless communications, there are a variety of frequencies or spectra through which RFID tags can communicate with readers. Again, there are trade-offs among cost, performance and application requirements. For instance, low-frequency tags are cheaper than ultra high-frequency (UHF) tags, use less power and are better able to penetrate non-metallic substances. They are ideal for scanning objects with high water content, such as fruit, at close range. UHF frequencies typically offer better range and can transfer data faster. But they use more power and are less likely to pass through some materials. UHF tags are typically best suited for use with or near wood, paper, cardboard or clothing products. Compared to low-frequency tags, UHF tags might be better for scanning boxes of goods as they pass through a bay door into a warehouse. While the tag requirements for compliance mandates may be narrowly defined, it is likely that a variety of tag types will be required to solve specific operational issues. You will want to work with a company that is very knowledgeable in tag and reader technology to appropriately identify the right mix of RFID technology for your environment and applications.
EPC Tags
EPC refers to "electronic product code," an emerging specification for RFID tags, readers and business applications first developed at the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This organization has provided significant intellectual leadership toward the use and application of RFID technology. EPC represents a specific approach to item identification, including an emerging standard for the tags themselves, including both the data content of the tag and open wireless communication protocols. In a sense, the EPC movement is combining the data standards embodied in certain bar code specifications, such as the UPC or UCC-128 bar code standards, with the wireless data
communication standards that have been developed by ANSI and other groups.
3. RF Transceiver:
The RF transceiver is the source of the RF energy used to activate and power the passive RFID tags. The RF transceiver may be enclosed in the same cabinet as the reader or it may be a separate piece of equipment. When provided as a separate piece of equipment, the transceiver is commonly referred to as an RF module. The RF transceiver controls and modulates the radio frequencies that the antenna transmits and receives. The transceiver filters and amplifies the backscatter signal from a passive RFID tag.
Typical Applications for RFID
• Automatic Vehicle identification
• Inventory Management
• Work-in-Process
• Container/ Yard Management
• Document/ Jewellery tracking
Patient Monitoring
Post: #2
Iam a final year computer science student.. I wanna do a project on automated parking system... pls help me by giving some information..
Post: #3
to get information about the topic rfid based project full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow
Post: #4
Automated car parking systems

.doc  Automated car parking systems.doc (Size: 26 KB / Downloads: 64)

How they work

Automated car parking systems use a similar type of technology to that used for mechanical parcel handling and document retrieval. The driver leaves the car inside an entrance area and technology parks the vehicle at a designated area. Hydraulic or mechanical car lifters raise the vehicle to another level for proper storing. The vehicle can be transported vertically (up or down) and horizontally (left and right) to a vacant parking space until the car is needed again. When the vehicle is needed, the process is reversed and the car lifts transport the vehicle back to the same area where the driver left it. In some cases, a turntable may be used to position the car so that the driver can conveniently drive away without the need to back up.[1]


Over the years, car parking systems and the accompanying technologies have increased and diversified. Car parking systems have been around almost since the time cars were invented. In any area where there is a significant amount of traffic, there are car parking systems. Car Parking systems were developed in the early 20th century in response to the need for storage space for vehicles.
In the 1920s, forerunners of automated parking systems appeared in U.S. cities like Los Angeles, Chicago, New York and Cincinnati. Some of these multi-story structures are still standing, and have been adapted for new uses. One of the Kent Automatic Parking Garages in New York (now known as the Sofia Apartments) is an Art Deco landmark that was converted into luxury condominiums in 1983. A system that is now found all over Japan — the “ferris-wheel,” or paternoster system — was created by the Westinghouse Corporation in 1923 and subsequently built in 1932 on Chicago’s Monroe Street. The Nash Motor Company created the first glass enclosed version of this system for the Chicago Century of Progress Exhibition in 1933, and it was the precursor to a more recent version, the Smart Car Towers in Europe.[2]


There are several advantages of employing a car park system for urban planners, business owners and vehicle drivers. They offer convenience for vehicle users and efficient usage of space for urban-based companies. Automated car park systems save time, money, space and simplify the often tedious task of parking. Auto car lifts move vehicles into safe and secure storage areas until they are needed.

Maintenance and Service

Service intervals vary for automated car parking systems, depending on the type of machines used and their usage. Parking systems should be serviced at least once a year, and up to four times a year for high traffic areas or for valet parking. In addition, regular cleaning is mandatory to keep the car parking system in good working order, especially with the problems posed by weather (salt on the road can spread to lifter platforms and cause severe damage if not removed. A reputable car parking company will regularly clean all critical elements of its automated parking system, including the car lifters top and bottom, all concrete pits, all posts resting on the concrete, and the entire concrete floor in the parking area.

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