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Working and Types of Total Station
Post: #1

presented by:
Punith KT

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Working and Types of Total Station
A Total Station is a combination Electronic Transit Theodolite and Electronic Distance Measuring Device (EDM). With the aid of trigonometry, the angles and distances may be used to calculate the actual positions (x, y, and z or northing, easting and elevation) of surveyed points in absolute terms.

It is a modern surveying instrument which consists of Electronic Digital Theodolite, Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM) instrument and minicomputer are built in one unit. It automatically measures the data and transfers into computer
Total Station
The best quality total stations are capable of measuring angles to 0.5 arc-second. Inexpensive "construction grade" total stations can generally measure angles to 5 or 10 arc-seconds.
 A Total Station integrates the functions of a theodolite for measuring angles, an EDM for measuring distances, digital data and a data recorder as a single unit.
 Angles and distances are measured from the Total Station to points under survey, and the coordinates (X, Y, and Z or Northing, Easting And Elevation) of surveyed points relative to the total station position are calculated using trigonometry and triangulation.
 Components of a Total Station
 Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM)
 Transit Electronic Theodolite
 On-Board Micro-processor
 Data Collector (Built in or separate unit)
 Data Storage (Internal or memory card)
 Prisms
 Tripod and Pole
Features of Total Station
EDM is fitted inside the telescope,
Digital display,
Compatibility with computers,
Measures distance and angles and displays coordinates,
Auto level compensator is available,
Can work in lesser visibility also,
Can measure distances even without prismatic target for lesser distances,
It is water proof
A Laser Optical Peewit for exact centering.
Display or circular vial and plate bubble in the both direction for easy leveling.
Accurate dual axis compactor using which the instrument can level ever on uneven ground.
The telescope length is short hence comfort and easy to sight.
Additional Features
New Total Stations have atmospheric correction, and auto-focus. In addition, these series incorporates a quick distance measuring mode and a high data storage capacity for increased productivity.
The new Total station gives the unique opportunity for long range distance monitoring of up to 9000m to a single prism
The Electronic field book can be store up to 10,000 data points .
Data can be downloaded from the Total Station to a computer and application software used to compute results and generate a map of the surveyed area.
How Does Total Station Work . . ?
 A standard Transit is basically a Telescope with cross-hairs for sighting a target;
 The telescope is attached to scales for measuring the angle of rotation of the telescope (normally relative to north as 0 degrees) and the angle of inclination of the telescope (relative to the horizontal as 0 degrees).
 After rotating the telescope to aim at a target, one may read the angle of rotation and the angle of inclination from a scale.
 The electronic transit provides a digital read-out of those angles instead of a scale;
 It is both more accurate and less prone to errors arising from interpolating between marks on the scale or from mis-recording. The readout is also continuous; so angles can be checked at any time.
Post: #2
this is great,thanks.
Post: #3

A total station or TST (total station theodolite) is an electronic / optical instrument used in modern surveying and building construction. The total station is an electronic theodolite (transit) integrated with an electronic distance measurement (EDM) to read slope distances from the instrument to a particular point, and an on-board computer to collect data and perform advanced calculations based on coordinates .

Total robotic stations allow the operator to control the instrument from a distance through the remote control. This eliminates the need for an auxiliary staff member when the operator holds the reflector and controls the total station from the observed point.

• The Total station is designed to measure inclined distances, horizontal and vertical angles and elevations in topographic and geodetic works, tachymetric surveys, as well as for the solution of geodesic application tasks. The results of the measurements can be recorded in the internal memory and transferred to a personal computer interface.
• The basic properties are the range, speed, and accuracy of unmatched measurements. The total stations are developed in view of the maximum comfort of the user's work. High-efficiency electronic tachometers are
It has wide audience for the sole of industrial problems.
• Angles and distances are measured from the total station to the points under survey, and the coordinates (X, Y and Z or north, east, and elevation) of the points surveyed with respect to the total position of the station are calculated Using trigonometry and triangulation.
• Data can be downloaded from the total station to a computer and application software used to calculate the results and generate a map of the surveyed area.
• A total station is an electronic / optical instrument used in modern topography. It is also used by archaeologists to record excavations as well as by police, crime scene investigators, private accident Reconstructionists and insurance companies to take measurements of scenes. The total station is an electronic theodolite (transit) integrated with an electronic distance meter (EDM), in addition to internal data storage and / or external data collector.
• The purpose of any survey is to prepare maps, checkpoints formed a basic requirement for the preparation of these maps.
• There are several numbers of methods such as traverse, triangulation etc. to provide these control points.
• Whatever the method of providing control points, includes the measurement of two entities (Distance and Angle).
• Again, distance can be measured using various instruments such as string, tape.
• Linear tap.
• Gunter chain (20m and 30m).
• Steel strip (20m and 30m).
• Inver tap.
• Hunter Short Base (80m).
• Electronic Instruments of Distance Measurement, Total Station and GPS.
• The angle can be measured using a theodolite.

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