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nanorobotics full report
Post: #16
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Post: #18
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Post: #19
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Post: #20
Nanorobotics



.pdf  37994464-Nano-Robotics.pdf (Size: 2.34 MB / Downloads: 84)

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the state of the art in the field of nano-robotics by describing various molecular level systems and associated design and control issues. Nano-robots are controllable machines at the nano (10-9) meter or molecular scale that are composed of nano-scale components. With the modern scientific capabilities, it has become possible to attempt the creation of nanorobotic devices and interface them with the macro world for control. There are countless such machines that exist in nature and there is an opportunity to build more of them by mimicking nature. Even if the field of nanorobotics is fundamentally different than that of macro robots due to the differences in scale and material, there are many similarities in design and control techniques that eventually could be projected and applied. A roadmap towards the progression of this field is proposed and some design concept and philosophies are illustrated. Two types of control mechanisms are given with examples and further hybrid mechanisms are proposed. There are many applications for nanorobotic systems and its biggest impact would be in the area of medicine.



Introduction

Nanotechnology can best be defined as a description of activities at the level of atoms and molecules that have applications in the real world. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter, that is, about 1/80,000 of the diameter of a human hair, or 10 times the diameter of a hydrogen atom. The size-related challenge is the ability to measure, manipulate, and assemble matter with features on the scale of 1-100nm. In order to achieve cost-effectiveness in nanotechnology it will be necessary to automate molecular manufacturing. The engineering of molecular products needs to be carried out by robotic devices, which have been termed nanorobots. A nanorobot is essentially a controllable machine at the nano meter or molecular scale that is composed of nano-scale components. The field of nanorobotics studies the design, manufacturing, programming and control of the nano-scale robots.
This review chapter focuses on the state of the art in the emerging field of nanorobotics, its applications and discusses in brief some of the essential properties and dynamical laws which make this field more challenging and unique than its macro scale counterpart. This chapter is only reviewing nano-scale robotic devices and does not include studies related to nano precision tasks with macro robotic devices that usually are also included in the field of nano-robotics.
Nanorobots would constitute any passive or active structure (nano scale) capable of actuation, sensing, signaling, information processing, intelligence, swarm behavior at nano scale. These functionalities could be illustrated individually or in combinations by a nano robot (swarm intelligence and co-operative behavior). So, there could be a whole genre of actuation and sensing or information processing nano robots having ability to interact and influence matter at the nano scale. Some of the characteristic abilities that are desirable for a nanorobot to function are:
i. Swarm Intelligence – decentralization and distributive intelligence
ii. Cooperative behavior – emergent and evolutionary behavior
iii. Self assembly and replication – assemblage at nano scale and ‘nano maintenance’
iv. Nano Information processing and programmability – for programming and controlling nanorobots (autonomous nanorobots)
v. Nano to macro world interface architecture – an architecture enabling instant access to the nanorobots and its control and maintenance
There are many differences between macro and nano-scale robots. However, they occur mainly in the basic laws that govern their dynamics. Macro scaled robots are essentially in the Newtonian mechanics domain whereas the laws governing nanorobots are in the molecular quantum mechanics domain. Furthermore, uncertainty plays a crucial role in nanorobotic systems. The fundamental barrier for dealing with uncertainty at the nano scale is imposed by the quantum and the statistical mechanics and thermal excitations. For a certain nano system at some particular temperature, there are positional uncertainties, which can not be modified or further reduced [1].
The nanorobots are invisible to naked eye, which makes them hard to manipulate and work with. Techniques like Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are being employed to establish a visual and haptic interface to enable us to sense the molecular structure of these nano scaled devices. Virtual Reality (VR) techniques are currently being explored in nano-science and bio-technology research as a way to enhance the operator’s perception (vision and haptics) by approaching more or less a state of ‘full immersion’ or ‘telepresence’. The development of nanorobots or nano machine components presents difficult fabrication and control challenges. Such devices will operate in microenvironments whose physical properties differ from those encountered by conventional parts. Since these nano scale devices have not yet been fabricated, evaluating possible designs and control algorithms requires using theoretical estimates and virtual interfaces/environments. Such interfaces/simulations can operate at various levels of detail to trade-off physical accuracy, computational cost, number of components and the time over which the simulation follows the nano-object behaviors. They can enable nano-scientists to extend their eyes and hands into the nano-world and also enable new types of exploration and whole new classes of experiments in the biological and physical sciences. VR simulations can also be used to develop virtual assemblies of nano and bio-nano components into mobile linkages and predict their performance.

Nature’s Nanorobotic Devices

In this section we will detail some of the man made and naturally occurring molecular machines. We divide the molecular machines into three broad categories – protein-based, DNA-based and chemical molecular motors.

Protein based molecular machines

This section focuses on the study of the following main protein based molecular machines:
i. ATP Synthase
ii. The Kinesin, Myosin, Dynein and Flagella Molecular Motors

ATP Synthase – a true nano rotary motor [2]

Synthesis of ATP is carried out by an enzyme, known as ATP Synthase. The inner mitochondrial membrane contains the ATP Synthase. The ATP Synthase is actually a combination of two motors functioning together as described in the Fig. 2 [3].
This enzyme consists of a proton-conducting F0 unit and a catalytic F1 unit. The figure also illustrates the subunits in side the two motor components. F1 constitutes of 33αβγδεsubunits. F0 has three different protein molecules, namely, subunit a, b and c. The γ-subunit of F1 is attached to the c subunit of F0 and is hence rotated along with it. The 33αβsubunits are fixed to the b-subunit of F0 and hence do not move. Further the b-subunit is held inside the membrane by a subunit of F0 (shown in the above figure by Walker, [3]).
Post: #21
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Post: #23
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Post: #24
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Post: #25

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