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An efficient FPGA implementation of the Advanced

Encryption Standard algorithm

An efficient FPGA implementation.pdf (Size: 415.31 KB / Downloads: 44)

INTRODUCTION

For a long time, the Data Encryption Standard (DES) was

considered as a standard for the symmetric key encryption.

DES has a key length of 56 bits. However, this key length is

currently considered small and can easily be broken. For this

reason, the National Institute of Standards and Technology

(NIST) opened a formal call for algorithms in September 1997.

A group of fifteen AES candidate algorithms were announced

in August 1998. Next, all algorithms were subject to

assessment process performed by various groups of

cryptographic researchers all over the world. In August 2000,

NIST selected five algorithms: Mars, RC6, Rijndael, Serpent

and Twofish as the final competitors. These algorithms were

subject to further analysis prior to the selection of the best

algorithm for the AES. Finally, on October 2, 2000, NIST

announced that the Rijndael algorithm was the winner.

Rijndael can be specified with key and block sizes in any

multiple of 32 bits, with a minimum of 128 bits and a

maximum of 256 bits. Therefore, the problem of breaking the

key becomes more difficult [1]. In cryptography, the AES is

also known as Rijndael [2]. AES has a fixed block size of 128

bits and a key size of 128, 192 or 256 bits.

The AES algorithm can be efficiently implemented by

hardware and software. Software implementations cost the

smallest resources, but they offer a limited physical security

and the slowest process. Besides, growing requirements for

high speed, high volume secure communications combined

with physical security, hardware implementation of

cryptography takes place.

An FPGA implementation is an intermediate solution

between general purpose processors (GPPs) and application

specific integrated circuits (ASICs). It has advantages over

both GPPs and ASICs. It provides a faster hardware solution

than a GPP. Also, it has a wider applicability than ASICs since

its configuring software makes use of the broad range of

functionality supported by the reconfigurable device [3].

This paper deals with an FPGA implementation of an AES

encryptor/decryptor using an iterative looping approach with

block and key size of 128 bits. Besides, our design uses the

lookup- table implementation of S-box. This method gives very

low complexity architecture and is easily operated to achieve

low latency as well as high throughput.

Organization of the rest of this paper is as follows. Section

2 provides a brief overview of AES algorithm. Design of AES

based on FPGA implementation is presented in section 3.

Section 4 gives simulation results followed by the comparisons

with other works in section 5. Finally, section 6 gives the

conclusion of this work.

DESCRIPTION OF AES ALGORITHM

The AES algorithm is a symmetric block cipher that can

encrypt and decrypt information. Encryption converts data to

an unintelligible form called cipher-text. Decryption of the

cipher-text converts the data back into its original form, which

is called plain-text.

A. AES encryption

The AES algorithm operates on a 128-bit block of data and

executed Nr - 1 loop times. A loop is called a round and the

number of iterations of a loop, Nr, can be 10, 12, or 14

depending on the key length. The key length is 128, 192 or 256

bits in length respectively. The first and last rounds differ from

other rounds in that there is an additional AddRoundKey

transformation at the beginning of the first round and no

MixCoulmns transformation is performed in the last round. In

this paper, we use the key length of 128 bits (AES-128) as a

model for general explanation. An outline of AES encryption is

given in Fig. 1.

SubBytes Transformation:

The SubBytes transformation is a non-linear byte

substitution, operating on each of the state bytes independently.

The SubBytes transformation is done using a once-precalculated

substitution table called S-box. That S-box table

contains 256 numbers (from 0 to 255) and their corresponding

978-1-4673-0309-5/12/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE

resulting values. More details of the method of calculating the

S-box table refers to [4]. In this design, we use a look-up table

as shown in Table I. This is a more efficient method than

directly implementing the multiplicative inverse operation

followed by affine transformation.

CONCLUSIONS

The Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm is a

symmetric block cipher that can process data blocks of 128 bits

through the use of cipher keys with lengths of 128, 192, and

256 bits. An efficient FPGA implementation of 128 bit block

and 128 bit key AES algorithm has been presented in this

paper. The design is implemented on Altera using APEX20KC

FPGA which is based on high performance architecture. The

proposed design is implemented based on the iterative

approach for cryptographic algorithms. Our architecture is

found to be better in terms of latency, throughput as well as

area. The design is tested with the sample vectors provided by

FIPS 197 [2]. The algorithm achieves a low latency and the

throughput reaches the value of 1054Mbit/sec for encryption

and 615 Mbit/sec for decryption.