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Body area networks (BAN)
Post: #1

Those who need to know Body area networks (BAN) from basic to professional level can go through the documents.


Attached File(s)
.docx  3-Body area networks (BAN).docx (Size: 295.94 KB / Downloads: 69)
.ppt  3-Body area networks (BAN).ppt (Size: 1.61 MB / Downloads: 96)
Post: #2
Body Area Networks:

Abstract

Advances in wireless communication technologies,
such as wearable and implantable biosensors,
along with recent developments in the embedded computing
area are enabling the design, development, and
implementation of body area networks. This class of
networks is paving the way for the deployment of innovative
healthcare monitoring applications.

Introduction

Recently, there has been increasing interest from researchers,
system designers, and application developers
on a new type of network architecture generally
known as body sensor networks (BSNs) or body area
networks (BANs),1 made feasible by novel advances on
lightweight, small-size, ultra-low-power, and intelligent
monitoring wearable sensors [6]. In BANs, sensors continuously
monitor human’s physiological activities and
actions, such as health status and motion pattern.

BAN communication architecture

Compared with existing technologies such as WLANs,
BANs enable wireless communications in or around a
human body by means sophisticated pervasive wireless
computing devices.
Figure 1 illustrates a general architecture of a
BAN-based health monitoring system. ECG, (electroencephalography)
EEG, (electromyography) EMG,
motion sensors, and blood pressure sensors send data
to nearby personal server (PS) devices. Then, through a
Bluetooth/WLAN connection, these data are streamed
remotely to a medical doctor’s site for real time diagnosis,
to a medical database for record keeping, or
to the corresponding equipment that issues an emergency
alert. In this article, we separate the BAN
communications architecture into three components.

Intra-BAN communications

We introduce the term “intra-BAN communications”
in reference to radio communications of about 2 meters
around the human body, which can be further
sub-categorized as: (1) communications between body
sensors, and (2) communications between body sensors
and the portable PS, as shown in shown in Fig. 1. Due
to the direct relationship with body sensors and BANs,
the design of intra-BAN communications is critical.
Furthermore, the intrinsically battery-operated and low
bit-rate features of existing body sensor devices make it
a challenging issue to design an energy-efficient MAC
protocol with QoS provisioning.

Inter-BAN communications

Unlike WSNs that normally operate as autonomous
systems, a BAN seldom works alone. In this section,
we define “inter-BAN communications” as the communications
between the PS and one or more access
points (APs). The APs can be deployed as part of the
infrastructure, or be strategically placed in a dynamic
environment for handling emergency situations. Similarly,
the functionality of a tier-2-network (as shown
in Fig. 1) is used to interconnect BANs with various
networks that are easy to access in daily life, such as
the Internet and cellular networks.

Hardware and devices

A body sensor node mainly consists of two parts: the
physiological signal sensor(s) and the radio platform,
to which multiple body sensors can be connected. The
general functionality of body sensors is to collect analog
signals that correspond to human’s physiological
activities or body actions. Such an analog signal can be
acquired by the corresponding radio-equipped board in
a wired fashion, where the analog signal is digitized.
Finally, the digital signal is forwarded by the radio
transceiver. In this section, we first introduce some
typical body sensors, followed by a survey of currently
available radio platforms.


Attached File(s)
.pdf  Body Area Networks.pdf (Size: 933.58 KB / Downloads: 41)
Post: #3
Body Area Networks (BANs)


.docx  banaaaa.docx (Size: 437.68 KB / Downloads: 33)
Abstract

The increasing use of wireless networks and the constant miniaturization of electrical devices haveempowered the development of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). In these networks various sensors are attached on clothing or on the body or even implanted under the skin. The wireless nature of the network and the wide variety of sensors offer numerous new, practical and innovative applications to improve health care and the Quality of Life. The sensors of a WBAN measure for example the heartbeat, the body temperature or record a prolonged electrocardiogram. Using a WBAN, the patient experiences a greater physical mobility and is no longer compelled to stay in the hospital. The paper offers a survey of the concept of Wireless Body Area Networks. First, we focus on some applications with special interest in patient monitoring.

Introduction

The field of computer science is constantly evolving to process larger data sets and maintain higher levels of connectivity. At same time, advances in miniaturization allow for increased mobility and accessibility. Recently, there has been increasing interest from researchers,system designers, and application developers on a new type of network architecture generallyknown asbody sensor networks (BSNs) or body area networks (BANs), made feasible by novel advances on lightweight, small-size, ultra-low-power, and intelligent monitoring wearable sensors.

BAN Communication Architecture

Compared with existing technologies such as WLANs, BANs enable wireless communications in or around a human body by means sophisticated pervasive wireless computing devices. Figure 1 illustrates a general architecture of a BAN-based health monitoring system. ECG, EEG, EMG, motion sensors, and blood pressure sensors send data to nearby personal server (PS) devices. Then, through a Bluetooth/WLAN connection, these data are streamed remotely to a medical doctor’s site for real time diagnosis, to a medical database for record keeping, or to the corresponding equipment that issues an emergency alert.

Hardware and devices

A body sensor node mainly consists of two parts: the physiological signal sensor(s) and the radio platform, to which multiple body sensors can be connected. The general functionality of body sensors is to collect analog signals that correspond to human’s physiological activities or body actions. Such an analog signal can be acquired by the corresponding radio-equipped board in a wired fashion, where the analog signal is digitized. Finally, the digital signal is forwarded by the radio transceiver. In this section, we introduce sometypical body sensors.

Conclusion

BAN is a promising technology which can revolutionizenext generation healthcare and entertainment applications.BAN brings out a new set of challenges in terms of scalability, energy efficiency, antenna design, QoS, coexistence, interference mitigation, and security and privacy to name a few, which are highlighted in this paper. We also discuss state-of-art technologies and standards which are relevant to BANs, as well as their merits and demerits. Developing a unifying BAN standard which addresses the core set of technical requirements is the quintessential step for unleashing the full potential of BANs, and is currently under discussion in the IEEE 802.15.6 Task Group. In the end several non-technical factors would also play crucial roles in the success of the BAN technology in mass marketing, such as affordability, legal, regulatory and ethical issues, and user friendliness, comfort and acceptance.
 

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