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.pptx  EMERGING TREND.pptx (Size: 416.57 KB / Downloads: 58)


”Industrial Relation is a relation between employer and employees, employees and employees and employees and trade unions”. –Industrial disputes act 1947
The Industrial Relation relations also called as labor - management, employee-employers relations.


Justice S.K Das, workmen of Dimakuchi tea estate v Dimakuch tea estate:
promotion of measures for securing and preserving amity and good relations between employer and workmen.
An investigations and settlement of industrial distputes between employers and employers,employers and workemen or workmens,with a right of representation by registered trade unionsor a federation of trade unions or an association of employers or a federation or association of employers


Administration, including overall organization, supervision and co-ordination of industrial relations policies and programmes.
Liaison with outside groups and personnel departments as well as with various cadres of the management staff.
The drafting of regulations, rules, laws or orders and their construction and interpretation.
Position classification, including overall direction of job analysis, salary and wage administration, wage survey and pay schedules.
Recruitment and employment of workers and other staff.
Employment testing, including intelligence tests, mechanical aptitude tests and achievement tests. Placement, including induction and assignment.
Training of apprentices, production workers, foremen and executives.


Globalization and increased competition has lead to less strikes, lockouts and less man days lost due to strikes. Also now in the era of knowledge industry employees are educated and thus don’t believe in violent activities. They are having responsibilities in cut throat competition and also are aware of their rights well leading to decline in strikes. Employers also avoid lockouts because decline in production for even hours results in heavy losses so forget about days or weeks.


It changes ownership, which may bring out changes not only in work org and employment but also in trade union (TU)dynamics.
It changes the work organization by necessitating retaining and redeployment.
It affects the right of workers and Trade unions, including job/union security, income security, and social security.


it is tried to ensure that pubic sector/ government employees receive similar protection as is provided in public/government employment. The worst affected are the pension provisions. this means, usually a reduction in pension benefits and an uncertainty concerning future provision of pension benefit due to:
The absence of government guarantees
Falling interest rates
X Investment of pension funds in stock markets

Earlier IR was mainly concerned with Trade unions, mgt and government but now consumers and the community are also a part of it. When the rights of consumers and community are affected, the rights of workers and unions and managers / employers take a back seat. Hence there is ban on bandh and restrictions even on protests and dharnas. Increasingly Trade unions are getting isolated and see a future for them only by aligning themselves with the interests of the wider society.


In government and public sectors workforce is declining because of non-filling of vacancies and introduction of voluntary / early separation schemes.
New employment opportunities are shrinking in these sectors.
In the private sectors particularly in service and software sector, the new, young, and female workers are generally less eager to join unions.


In 1980-81 man days lost = 402.1 million  In 1990-91 man days lost = 210 million Not because of improved IR but because of the fear of job security, concern about the futility of strikes, and concern to survive their organization for their income survival. Trade unions have become defensive evident from the fact that there is significant shift from strikes to law suits. Instead of pressing for higher wages and improved benefits, Trade unions are pressing for maintenance of existing benefits and protection and claims over non-payment of agreed wages and benefits.


Collective bargaining is a process of negotiations between employers and the representatives of a unit of employees aimed at reaching agreements which regulate working conditions.
Total number of strikes and lockout have declined since 2000-04
In 2003 it was 552 and in 2004 it went down to 477.
As regards women working on night shifts, The Factories (Amendment) Bill 2005, was under consideration to provide them flexibility and safety.  Also, to simplify the procedure for managements to maintain registers and filing returns, an amendment of Labour Laws (Exemption from Furnishing returns and maintaining Registers by Certain Establishments) Act 1988, was under consideration.


Both management and unions should develop constructive attitudes towards each other
All basic policies and procedures relating to Industrial Relation should be clear to everybody in the organization and to the union leader. The personnel manager must make certain that line people will understand and agree with these policies.
The personnel manager should remove any distrust by convincing the union of the company’s integrity and his own sincerity and honesty. Suspicious, rumors and doubts should all be put to rest.

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