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Four -storeted Framed Building
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Unipro Techno Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. has grown dramatically since its establishment in 1996, a Partnership firm armed with the strength, stability, experience and sound management certified company and is poised to continued assert it as a construction leader in the industry. Unipro Techno Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. can be dependent on project such as Admin Buildings Tank foundations and various types of curl work in Industries, Road works (NH). A well established and successful construction company, it possesses a strong rooted conviction behind our abundant creative spirit. The company is carrying out the Construction Works in Buildings, Road Work, Resorts, industrial buildings and Major R.C.C. Works amounting to Millions of Rupees. Company's policy has been always to provide good quality construction at competitive cost and earn customer satisfaction which is two basic principles of company’s business. Company interacts with its clients on regular basis at various levels. Man Power is the main stay and strength of the company and varies according to the project. Thi
  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to extend our sincere thanks to Er. Amanpreetkaur, head-departmentof CIVIL Engineering at Rayat-Bahra Institute Of Engineering & Nano TechonologyHoshiarpur for providing us with this invaluable opportunity to undertake our training report in the department. I would like to express heartfelt gratitude to our training inchargeEr. KULWINDER SINGH , Lecturer CIVIL department RBIENT Hoshiarpurwho was regurarly contacted with us, and provide time to time update about our training report, inspite of his busy sechdule. I would like to a special thanks for my training supervisor in indoor stadium Er.ARVIND SHARMA, Project Engineer Unipro Techno Infrastructure Pvt.Ltd.whohelp me in field knowledge i.e. about constructon of building works & drawings. I would like to a special thanks for Mr.Sanjeevkumar, Supervisor Unipro Techno Pvt.Ltd.who tell me about field and also in Quality Control.   DECLARATION BY CANDIDATE I hereby certify that this work on “NETA G SUBHASH CHANDAR BOSS INDOOR STADIUM” is presented in partial fulfillment for the award of degree ofB.Tech (civil) at Rayat-Bahra Institute of Engineering & Nano- Technology, Hoshiarpur. This report is an authentic record of my own work (observations at site) carried out during a period from 1 Janaury 2014 to 10 June 2014 under the supervision of “Er.Arvind Sharma”. The matter presented in this report has not beenSubmitted by me in any other University / Institute for the award of B.TechDegree. Signature of the Student(s) Signature of Guide/ Supervisor Designation of Guide   CONTENTS SR .NO DESCRIPTION PAGE NO. 1 INTRODUCTION 05 2 COST OF PROJECT 08 3 MY SCOPE OF WORK 09 4 STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION WORK 10 5 FACILITIES 11 6 TYPES OF BUILDING 12 7 COMPONENTS OF BUILDING 14 8 SITE VEIW:SEQUENCE OF STRUCTURE WORK 21 9 CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY AND MATERIALS USED 22 10 SHUTTERING AND SCAFFOLDING 36 11 TESTS 38 12 MACHINERY 40 13 VARIOUS STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 45 14 FOOTING TYPES 54 15 ROLE OF TRAINEE 57 16 BIBLIOGRAPHY 58   INTRODUCTION Unipro Techno Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. has grown dramatically since its establishment in 1996, a Partnership firm armed with the strength, stability, experience and sound management certified company and is poised to continued assert it as a construction leader in the industry. Unipro Techno Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. can be dependent on project such as Admin Buildings Tank foundations and various types of curl work in Industries, Road works (NH). A well established and successful construction company, it possesses a strong rooted conviction behind our abundant creative spirit. The company is carrying out the Construction Works in Buildings, Road Work, Resorts, industrial buildings and Major R.C.C. Works amounting to Millions of Rupees. Company's policy has been always to provide good quality construction at competitive cost and earn customer satisfaction which is two basic principles of company’s business. Company interacts with its clients on regular basis at various levels. Man Power is the main stay and strength of the company and varies according to the project. This company has manpower of great extent . On its part, the company has a policy for recruitment and training of fresh technical and commercial staff to groom their talents & induct them in the company's main stream of activity. Occupational Health, Safety & Environment policy have always remained company's priority while working towards growth addition. Company is having well integrated team with qualified and experienced executives at all levels with standard systems. KEY PERSONNEL INFORMATION Dy. General Manager : Anil Madaan Additional General Manager : Rakesh Gupta Project Engineer : Arvind Sharma Supervisor : Sanjeevkumar ABOUT THE COMPANY NAME OF COMPANY: UNIPRO TECHNO INFRASTRUCTURE PVT.LTD. SCO 36, 2ndFLOOR , SECTOR 18-D CHANDIGARH. TEL/FAX : 0172-4027034,4024162 E-mail: mail[at] Web: ADDERESS: NETA G SUBHASH CHANDAR INDOOR STADIUM, ANU CHOWK, DISTT.HAMIRPUR (H.P). TURN OVER: 10 CRORES (2012-2015) CATEGORIES OF (a) Building and road works. REGISTRATION (b) Handling of Engineering Stores and Transport. © Civil Engineering :- Specialist in Reinforced COST OF PROJECT Description Values / Description to be applicable for Relevant clause (s) 1 Name of Work Construction of indoor Stadium comprising of Stadium Building, Hostels, Residential Complex including allied services at Hamirpur (HP) 2 Client / Owner Unipro Techno 3 Type of Tender Percentage Rate Tender 4 Earnest Money Deposit NIT Rs. 10.00 Lac (Rupees One lac only) 5 Estimated Cost NIT Rs. 10.00 Crores (Rupees Ten Crores only) 6 Contract Completion Period NIT Total Work to be completed in 36 (Thirty Six) months in accordance with the Time Schedule of completion of work in the tender documents. 7 Mobilization Advance 8.0 GCC Mob Advupto a maximum of 10% (Ten Percent) of contract value shall be paid against submission of BG equivalent to 1.2 times of Mobilization advance. 8 Interest Rate of Mobilization Advance Simple interest rate @12% (Twelve Percent only) per annum 9 Schedule of Rates Applicable 69.0 GCC Civil Work : DSR 2007 Plumbing & Fire Fighting : DSR 2007 Electrical work (Internal) : DSR 2007 Electrical work (External) : DSR 2007 10 Validity of Tender 4.0 GCC 90 (Ninety) days 11 Performance Guarantee 9.0 GCC 5.00 % (five percent only) of contract value within 15 days after signing of agreement. 12 Security deposit / Retention money 10.0 GCC 5.00 % (five percent only) of contract amount which shall be deducted in the manners set out in this contract. 13 Time allowed for starting of work 43 GCC The date of start of contract shall be reckoned from 10 days from the date of issue of telegram/letter/fax of letter of intent of acceptance of tender MY SCOPE OF WORK 1. Site Supervision: • Poroper supervision at the site so that work done by contractors was as Per terms, conditions and instructions issued to them. • Quality management like cube testing, bricks testing physical testing of bricks when they arrived at site monitoring the filling of the the cubes at the site in order to ensure that right date and grade pf concrete was put on the cube samples. • To ensure that safety procedures were adopted by the contractors like working at height with safety belt, helmets to be worn by the person as long as he/she was at site, proper safety shoes to be worn. 2. Management and office work: • Maintaining the drawings tracking log electrically and regularly it so that a track of all the drawings arriving at the site could be kept. • Issuing drawings to the contractors. • Making a detailed list of the various rooms at the site. So that progress in the interior work could be tracked. STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION WORK 1) Type of building: - First select the type of building whatever want to construct , depending on the need like villas, flats, apartments, penthouses, mall, industrial building or group housing. 2) Site selection: - Site for construction of building can be selected according to the space required and whatever the area and the people demands, in the accordance with the density of the population and bearing in mind the geographical and industrial point of view for further development. 3) Survey:- By survey we measure all the dimensions and plot the real position or place where we want to construct our structure. This includes many aspects like financial survey, economical survey, topographic survey etc. etc. 4) Site Investigation:- By this we site investigate about the type of the soil, bearing capacity of soil, nature of the bed, the topographical feature of the area, which in turn helps the structural designer to design the footing for our project. 5) Structure Design:- Structural design is that person who gives life an Architectural Drawing; it infuses the correct data and interpret the correct meaning which an Engineer knows. He suggests the type of foundation, columns, beams and slabs etc. which are needed for the construction and also provides the amount of steel and its size. 6) Construction:- After all these steps Construction of the proposed project starts. FACILITIES For the smooth running of the construction project proper facilities should be provided at the site. The main facilities which should be provided at the site are:-  Electricity  Water  Road  Parking place  Sanitation  Food  Shelter  Material storage facilities  Construction waste facilities  Construction site fencing  Emergency access The basic information for the construction of any building project or a project is the MATERIALS ( discussed a head) TESTS (discussed a head) are of the prime importance for the proper functioning of the building its long life. The various processes and requirement of any construction company during its period of the construction of any building at any site ar discussed below. GENERAL A building can be defined as a structure broadly consisting of walls, floor and roofs, erected to provide covered space for different uses such as residence, education, `business, manufacturing, storage, hospitalization, entertainment, worship etc. this method adopted for construction and choice of material to be used in the building depends upon a number of factors like character of occupancy , location of site, climate, local materials and funds available. Normally all building are constructed according to drawing and specifications prepared by architects. TYPES OF BUILDING Depending upon the character of occupancy or the types of use, different types of building have been classified in following groups as per national building code :- (1) Residential Buildings (2) Educational Buildings (3) Institutional Buildings (4) Assembly Buildings (5) Business Buildings (6) Mercantile Buildings (7) Industrial Buildings (8) Storage Buildings (9) Hazardous Buildings 1. RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS. These shall include one or two private dwellings, apartment houses (flats), dormitories, hostels etc. 2. Educational Buildings. These shall include any building used for school, collage or day-care purposes involving assembly for instruction, education or recreation. 3. Institutional Buildings. These shall include any building or part thereof which is used for purposes such as medical or other treatment or care of persons suffering from physical or mental illness or disease, care the liberty of the imamates is restricted. Institutional buildings ordinarily provide sleeping accommodation for the accommodation for the occupants. It includes hospitals, sanatoria, nursing homes, orphanages, jails, prisons, mental hospitals, reformatories etc. 4. Assembly Buildings. These shall include any building or part of a building where group of people congregate or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, periodic, civil, travel and similar auditoria, exhibition hall, museums, skating rings, gymnasiums, restaurants, places of worship, dance halls, club rooms, passenger stations, and terminals of air, surface, marine and public transportation services. 5. Business Buildings. These shall include any building or part of a building which is used for transaction of business, for the keeping of accounts and records for similar purposes, city halls, towns halls, court houses, libraries shall be classified in this groups in so far as principal function of these is transaction of public business and the keeping of books and records. 6. Mercantile Buildings. These shall include any building or part of a building which is used as shops, stores, market, for display and sale of merchandise either wholesale or retail. 7. Industrial Building. These shall any building or part of building or structure, in which products or materials of all kinds and properties are fabricated, assembled or processed, for example, refineries, gas plants , mills, dairies, Industries etc. 8. Storage Buildings. These shall include any building or part of a building primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, wares ormerchandise, like warehouses, cold storages, freight deptt, transit sheds, garages, hangers, grain elevators, stables etc. 9. Hazardous Buildings. These shall any building or part of building which is used for the storage , handling, manufacture or processing of highly combustible explosive materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity and which may produce poisonous fumes or other liquids or chemicals producing flame, fumes and explosive etc. COMPONENTS OF A BUILDING A Building can be broadly divided in two parts (1) Sub-structure and (2) Super-structure. The portion of building below the surrounding ground is known as sub-structure and he portion above the round is termed as super-structure . 1. Foundations 2. Plinth 3. Walls 4. Columns 5. Floors 6. Doors, windows and ventilators 7. Stairs 8. Roofs 9. Building finishes 10. Building services COMPONENTS 1.Foundations:Foundation is the lowest part of a structure below the ground level which is in contact with ground and transmits all the dead, live and other loads to the soil on which the structure rests. The provision of foundation is made in such a way that the soil. RAFT FOUNDATION 2.Plinth:The portion of the building between the ground surrounding the building and the top of the floor immediately above the ground is known as plinth. The level of the surrounding ground is known as formation level or simply ground level and the level of the ground floor of the building is known as plinth level. The plinth height should be such that after proper leveling and grading of the ground adjoining the building (for proper drainage) there is no possibility of the rain water entering the ground floor. The built up covered area measured at the floor level is termed as plinth area. 3.Walls:Walls are provided to enclose or divide the floor space in desired pattern. In addition, walls provide privacy, security and give protection against sun, rain cold and other adverse effects of weather. The division of floor space varies according to the functions required to divide the space in such a manner so as to achieve maximum carpet area and minimum area of circulation. Walls are constructed by use of building units like bricks, stone, concrete blocks (hollow or solid) etc. The building units are bounded together with mortar in horizontal and vertical joints and the construction is termed as masonry. When bricks are used as building units it is known as bricks masonry and stones are used as building units it known as stones masonry. Walls can be dividing in twocategories (1) Load bearing walls and (2) Non-load bearing walls A load bearing wall supports its own weights as well as the super-imposed loads transferred to it through floor/roofs. A non-load bearing wall on the other hand carries its own weights and is not designed to carry any super-imposed load from the structure. They are normally provided as partition walls. CONCRETE BLOCK MASONARY 4.Column:A column may be defined as an isolated vertical load bearing member the width of which is neither less then its thickness nor more then four times its thickness. Pier is a vertical load bearing member similar to a column except that it bonded into load bearing wall at the sides to form an integral part and extends to full height of the wall. A pier is introduced to increase the stiffness of the wall to carry additional load or to carry vertical concentrated load. Pier also strengthens the wall to resist lateral pressure without buckling. COLUMN 5.Floors:Floors are flat supporting elements of a building. They divide a building into different levels thereby creating more accommodation on a given plot of land. The basic purpose of floor is to provide a firm and dry platform for people and other items like furniture, stores, equipment’s etc. floor is generally referred to by its location. A floor provided for accommodation below the natural ground level is termed as basement floor. A floor immediately above the ground is termed as ground floor and all other floors such as 1st floor, 2nd floor etc. A floor basically consists of two parts namely (1) Sub-floor (2) flooring The sub-floor is the structural component of the floor which supports all the loads (dead and super-imposed) r. and flooring is covering layer of desired specification (cement concrete, terrazzo, tiles etc.) provided over the sub-floor to serve as a finishing layer. 6.Doors, Windows and Ventilators:A door may be defined as a barrier secured in an opening left in a wall to provide usual means of access to a building, room or passage. This can be termed as the most constantly used moving component in a building. A door normally consists of two components namely (1) Door frame (2) Door shutter. The door frame is permanently held in position and fixed to the masonry of the opening with the help of hold-fasts or raw plugs. Shutter is the moving part of the door. Doors are made out of material like wood, steel, aluminums, plastic, flexible rubber etc. they can be side hung and sliding, folding, revolving or rolling type depending upon the functional requirement. A window may be defined as an opening left in a wall for the purpose of providing day light, vision and ventilation. Similar to door, a window has a frame and one or more shutters. The shutters are normally fitted with glass or similartransparent material. The windows can be side hung, top or bottom hung, louvered types and the shutters can be fully glazed, paneled and glazed or fully paneled types. 7.Roof:It is the uppermost component of a building and its main function is to cover the space below and protect it from rain, snow, sun, wind etc. a roof basically consist of two component name. (1)The roof decking and (2) The roof covering. The roof decking is the structural component which supports the roof covering. A roof can be either flat, pitched or curved in shape. The choice of type of roof is made keeping in view the location of the building, weather conditions, funds available and functional and aesthetics requirement. The structural component or roof decking in case of pitched roof is generally a truss, in case of curved roof it is a shell or dome and in case of flat roof it is a flat slab. The roof covering or roofing which is provided over pitched roof could be in the form of tiles, slates, A.C. sheets, G.I. sheets, etc. In case of flat of a layer of varying thickness of material like lime concrete, mud phuska etc. the terracing serves dual purpose (1)of providing suitable slopes on the roof top for draining of rain water and (2) of acting as insulation layer for providing thermal comfort to the users of the space below. ROOF SITE VEIW:SEQUENCE OF STRUCTURE WORK • Site clearance • Demarcation of site • Positioning of central coordinate is (0 ,0,0) as per grid plan • Surveying and layout • Excavation • Laying of PCC • Bar binding and placement of foundation steel • Shuttering and Scaffolding • Concreting • Electrical and Plumping • DE shuttering • Brick work • Doors and windows frames along with lintels • Wiring for electrical purposes • Plastering • Flooring and tilting work • Painting • Final completion and handling over the project CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY AND MATERIALS USED Site Clearance- The very first step is site clearance which involves removal of grass and vegetation along with any other objections which might be there in the site location. Demarcation of Site- The whole area on which construction is to be done is marked so as to identify the construction zone. In our project, a plot of 28*50 metre was chosen and the respective marking was done. Positioning of Central coordinate and layout- The centre point was marked with the help of a thread and plumb bob as per the grid drawing. With respect to this center point, all the other points of columns were to be decided so its exact position is very critical. Excavation-Excavation was carried out both manually as well as mechanically. Normally 1-2 earth excavators (JCB’s) were used for excavating the soil. Adequate precautions are taken to see that the excavation operations do not damage the adjoining structures. Excavation is carried out providing adequate side slopes and dressing of excavation bottom. The soil present beneath the surface was too clayey so it was dumped and was not used for back filling. The filling is done in layer not exceeding 20 cm layer and thanits compacted. Depth of excavation was 11’4” from Ground Level. PCC–PLAIN CEMENT CONCRETE-After the process of excavation, laying of plain cement concrete that is PCC is done. A layer of 4 inches was made in such a manner that it was not mixed with the soil. It provides a solid bas for theraft foundation and a mix of 1:5:10 that is, 1 part of cement to 5 parts of fine aggregates and 10 parts of coarse aggregates by volume were used in it. Plain concrete is vibrated to achieve full compaction. Concrete placed below ground should be protected from falling earth during and after placing. Concrete placed in ground containing deleterious substances should be kept free from contact with such a ground and with water draining there from during placing and for a period of seven days. When joint in a layer of concrete are unavoidable, and end is sloped at an angle of 30 and junctions of different layers break joint in laying upper layer of concrete. The lower surface is made rough and clean watered before upper layer is laid. LAYING OF FOUNDATION At our site, Raft foundations are used to spread the load from a structure over a large area, normally the entire area of the structure. Normally raft foundation is used when large load is to be distributed and it is not possible to provide individual footings due to space constraints that is they would overlap on each other. Raft foundations have the advantage of reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements between loading positions. They are often needed on soft or loose soils with low bearing capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area. Apart from raft foundation, individual footings were used in the mess area which was extend. CEMENT: Portland cement is composed of calcium silicates and aluminate and aluminoferrite It is obtained by blending predetermined proportions limestone clay and other minerals in small quantities which is pulverized and heated at high temperature – around 1500 deg centigrade to produce ‘clinker’. The clinker is then ground with small quantities of gypsum to produce a fine powder called Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). When mixed with water, sand and stone, it combines slowly with the water to form a hard mass called concrete. Cement is a hygroscopic material meaning that it absorbs moisture In presence of moisture it undergoes chemical reaction termed as hydration. Therefore cement remains in good condition as long as it does not come in contact with moisture. If cement is more than three months old then it should be tested for its strength before being taken into use. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has classified OPC in three different grades The classification is mainly based on the compressive strength of cement-sand mortar cubes of face area 50 cm2 composed of 1 part of cement to 3 parts of standard sand by weight with a water-cement ratio arrived at by a specified procedure. The grades are (i) 33 grade (ii) 43 grade (iii) 53 grade The grade number indicates the minimum compressive strength of cement sand mortar in N/mm2 at 28 days, as tested by above mentioned procedure. Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) is obtained by either intergrinding a pozzolanic material with clinker and gypsum, or by blending ground pozzolana with Portland cement. Nowadays good quality fly ash is available from Thermal Power Plants, which are processed and used in manufacturing of PPC. The basic components of cement are:- SiO2 17-25 % Al2O3 4-8 % Fe2O3 CaO 0.5-0.6 % 61-63 5 MgO SO3 0.1-4.0 % 1.3-3.0 % Na2 + K2O 0.4-1.3 % CI IR 0.01-0.1% 0.6-1.75 % SETTLING OF CEMENT When water is mixed with cement, the paste so formed remains pliable and plastic for a short time. During this period it is possible to disturb the paste and remit it without any deleterious effects. As the reaction between water and cement continues, the paste loses its plasticity. This early period in the hardening of cement is referred to as ‘setting’ of cement. INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIME OF CEMENT Initial set is when the cement paste loses its plasticity and stiffens considerably. Final set is the point when the paste hardens and can sustain some minor load. Both are arbitrary points and these are determined by Vicat needle penetration resistance Slow or fast setting normally depends on the nature of cement. It could also be due to extraneous factors not related to the cement. The ambient conditions play an important role. In hot weather, the setting is faster, in cold weather,setting is delayed Some types of salts, chemicals,clay, etcif inadvertently get mixed with the sand, aggregate and water could accelerate or delay the setting of concrete. STORAGE OF CEMENT It needs extra care or else can lead to loss not only in terms of financial loss but also in terms of loss in the quality. Following are the don’t that should be followed - (i) Do not store bags in a building or a go-down in which the walls, roof and floor are not completely weatherproof. (ii) Do not store bags in a new warehouse until the interior has thoroughly dried out. (iii) Do not be content with badly fitting windows and doors, make sure they fit properly and ensure that they are kept shut. (iv)Do not stack bags against the wall. Similarly, don’t pile them on the floor unless it is a dry concrete floor. If not, bags should be stacked on wooden planks or sleepers. (v) Do not forget to pile the bags close together (vi) Do not pile more than 15 bags high and arrange the bags in a header-and-stretcher fashion. (vii) Do not disturb the stored cement until it is to be taken out for use. (viii) Do not take out bags from one tier only. Step back two or three tiers. (ix) Do not keep dead storage. The principle of first-in first-out should be followed in removing bags. (x) Do not stack bags on the ground for temporary storage at work site. Pile them on a raised, dry platform and cover with tarpaulin or polythene sheet. COARSE AGGREGATE Coarse aggregate for the works should be river gravel or crushed stone .It should be hard, strong, dense, durable, clean, and free from clay or loamy admixtures or quarry refuse or vegetable matter. The pieces of aggregates should be cubical, or rounded shaped and should have granular or crystalline or smooth (but not glossy) non-powdery surfaces.Aggregates should be properly screened and if necessary washed clean before use. Coarse aggregates containing flat, elongated or flaky pieces or mica should be rejected. The grading of coarse aggregates should be as per specifications of IS-383. After 24-hrs immersion in water, a previously dried sample of the coarse aggregate should not gain in weight more than 5%. Aggregates should be stored in such a way as to prevent segregation of sizes and avoid contamination with fines. Depending upon the coarse aggregate color, there quality can be determined as: Black => very good quality Blue => good Whitish =>bad quality FINE AGGREGATE Aggregate which is passed through 4.75 IS Sieve is termed as fine aggregate. Fine aggregate is added to concrete to assist workability and to bring uniformity in mixture. Usually, the natural river sand is used as fine aggregate. Important thing to be considered is that fine aggregates should be free from coagulated lumps. Grading of natural sand or crushed stone i.e. fine aggregates shall be such that not more than 5 percent shall exceed 5 mm in size, not more than 10% shall IS sieve No. 150 not less than 45% or more than 85% shall pass IS sieve No. 1.18 mm and not less than 25% or more than 60% shall pass IS sieve No. 600 micron. WATER Water is the key ingredient, which when mixed with the cement, forms a paste that binds the aggregates together. The water causes the hardening of concrete through a process called hydration. Hydration is a chemical reaction in which the major compounds in cement form chemical bonds; LM with water molecules and become hydrates or hydration products. The water needs to be pure (PORTABLE) in order to prevent side reactions from occurring which may weaken the concrete or otherwise interfere with the hydration process. The role of water is important because the water to cement ratio is the most critical factor in the production of “perfect” much water reduces concrete strength, while too little will make the concrete unworkable. WATER BRICKS A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonary construction, usually laid using various kinds of mortar. It had ben regarded as one of the longest lasting and stronget building materials used in throughout history. For efficient handling and laying bricks must be small enough and light enough to be picked up by the bricklayer using one hand . Bricks are usually laid flat and as well as a result the effective limit on the width of a brick is set by the distance which can conveniently be spanned between the thumb and fingers of one hand, normally about four inches (about 101mm). In most cases, the length of a brick is about twice its width, about eight inches (abput 203mm) or slightly more. TYPES Bricks used in masonary a can be divided into two types:-  Traditional bricks The dimensions of traditional bricks vary from 21 cm to 25 cm in length, 10-13 cm in width and 7.5 cm in height in different parts of the country. The commonly adopted nominal size of a traditional brick is 23 x 11.4 x 7.6 cm(9” x 4.5” x 3”) with a view to achieve manufacture of uniform size of bricks all over the country.  Modular bricks Modular bricks is 19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm Masonary with modular bricks work out to be cheaper since there is saving in the consumption of the bricks, mortar and labour as compared with the traditional bricks. The bricks used at site are class A bricks of size 9” x 4.5” x 2.5”. these are laid using the sand cement mortar of ratio 1:4. REINFORCEMENTS Steel reinforcements are used, generally, in the form of bars of circular cross section in concrete structure. They are like a skeleton in human body. Plain concrete without steel or any other reinforcement is strong in compression but weak in tension. Steel is one of the best forms of reinforcements, to take care of those stresses and to strengthen concrete to bear all kinds of loads. Mild steel bars conforming to IS: 432 (Part I) and Cold-worked steel high strength deformed bars conforming to IS: 1786 (grade Fe 415 and grade Fe 500, where 415 and 500 indicate yield stresses 415 N/mm2 and 500 N/mm2 respectively) are commonly used. Grade Fe 415 is being used most commonly nowadays. This has limited the use of plain mild steel bars because of higher yield stress and bond strength resulting in saving of steel quantity. Some companies have brought thermo mechanically treated (TMT) and corrosion resistant steel (CRS) bars with added features. Bars range in diameter from 6 to 50 mm. Cold-worked steel high strength deformed bars start from 8 mm diameter. For general house constructions, bars of diameter 6 to 20 mm are used. Transverse reinforcements are very important. They not only take care of structural requirements but also help main reinforcements to remain in desired position. They play a very significant role while abrupt changes or reversal of stresses like earthquake etc. They should be closely spaced as per the drawing and properly tied to the main/longitudinal reinforcemen. TERMS USED IN REINFORCEMENT BAR-BENDING-SCHEDULE Bar-bending-schedule is the schedule of reinforcement bars prepared in advance before cutting and bending of rebar’s. This schedule contains all details of size, shape and dimension of rebar’s to be cut. LAP LENGTH Lap length is the length overlap of bars tied to extend the reinforcement length.. Lap length about 50 times the diameter of the bar is considered safe. Laps of neighboring bar lengths should be staggered and should not be provided at one level/line. At one cross section, a maximum of 50% bars should be lapped. In case, required lap length is not available at junction because of space and other constraints, bars can be joined with couplers or welded (with correct choice of method of welding). ANCHORAGE LENGTH This is the additional length of steel of one structure required to be inserted in other at the junction. For example, main bars of beam in column at beam column junction, column bars in footing etc. The length requirement is similar to the lap length mentioned in previous question or as per the design instructions. CALCULATION OF WEIGHT OF STEEL For any steel reinforcement bar, weight per running meter is equal to d2/162 kg, where d is diameter of the bar in mm. for example , 10 mm diameter bar will weight 10x10/162 = 0.617 kg/m. COVER BLOCK Cover blocks are placed to prevent the steel rods from touching the shuttering plates and there by providing a minimum cover and fix the reinforcements as per the design drawings. Sometimes it is commonly seen that the cover gets misplaced during the concreting activity. To prevent this, tying of cover with steel bars using thin steel wires called binding wires (projected from cover surface and placed during making or casting of cover blocks) is recommended. Covers should be made of cement sand mortar (1:3). Ideally, cover should have strength similar to the surrounding concrete, with the least perimeter so that chances of water to penetrate through periphery will be minimized. Provision of minimum covers as per the Indian standards for durability of the whole structure should be ensured. Shape of the cover blocks could be cubical or cylindrical. However, cover indicates thickness of the cover block. Normally, cubical cover blocks are used. As a thumb rule, minimum cover of 2” in footings, 1.5” in columns and 1” for other structures may be ensured. Structural element Cover to reinforcement (mm) Footings 40 Columns 40 Slabs 15 Beams 25 Retaining wall 25 for earth face 20 for other face THINGS TO NOTE: Reinforcement should be free from loose rust, oil paints, mud etc. it should be cut, bent and fixed properly. The reinforcement shall be placed and maintained in position by providing proper cover blocks, spacers, supporting bars, laps etc. Reinforcements shall be placed and tied such that concrete placement is possible without segregation, and compaction possible by an immersion vibrator. For any steel reinforcement bar, weight per running meter is equal to d*d/162 Kg, where d is diameter of the bar in mm. For example, 10 mm diameter bar will weigh 10×10/162 = 0.617 Kg/m Three types of bars were used in reinforcement of a slab. These include straight bars, crank bar and an extra bar. The main steel is placed in which the straight steel is binded first, then the crank steel is placed and extra steel is placed in the end. The extra steel comes over the support while crank is encountered at distance of ¼(1-distance between the supports) from the surroundings supports. For providing nominal cover to the steel in beam, cover blocks were used which were made of concrete and were casted with a thin steel wire in the center which projects outward. These keep the reinforcement at a distance from bottom of shuttering. For maintaining the gap between the main steel and the distribution steel, steel chairs are placed between them. SHUTTERING AND SCAFFOLDING DEFINITION: The term ‘SHUTTERING’ or ‘FORMWORK’ includes all forms, moulds, sheeting, shuttering planks, walrus, poles, posts, standards, leizers, V-Heads, struts, and structure, ties, prights, walling steel rods, bolts, wedges, and all other temporary supports to the concrete during the process of sheeting. FORM WORK: Forms or moulds or shutters are the receptacles in which concrete is placed, so that it will have the desired shape or outline when hardened. Once the concrete develops adequate strength, the forms are removed. Forms are generally made of the materials like timber, plywood, steel, etc. Generally camber is provided in the formwork for horizontal members to counteract the effect of deflection caused due to the weight of reinforcement and concrete placed over that. A proper lubrication of shuttering plates is also done before the placement of reinforcement. The oil film sandwiched between concrete and formwork surface not only helps in easy removal of shuttering but also prevents loss of moisture from the concrete through absorption and evaporation. The steel form work was designed and constructed to the shapes, lines and dimensions shown on the drawings. All forms were sufficiently water tight to prevent leakage of mortar. Forms were so constructed as to be removable in sections. One side of the column forms were left open and the open side filled in board by board successively as the concrete is placed and compacted except when vibrators are used. A key was made at the end of each casting in concrete columns of appropriate size to give proper bondings to columns and walls as per relevant IS. MATERIALS:- Steel, Timber, Plywood, Plastic fibre or any other approved material. ADVANTAGES OF STEEL FORMWORK:  It provides ease of stripping.  It ensures an even and smooth concrete surface.  It possess greater rigidity.  It is not liable to shrinkage or distortion.  It can be re-used several times.  It does not absorb water from concrete. TESTS A concrete test which is performed to learn more about the properties of a specific sample of concrete. A number of different tests can be performed on concrete, both on a job site and in a laboratory. Because concrete is an important structural element, testing is mandatory in many regions of the world , and construction companies must provided documentation of their testing and results when asked to do so by government representatives.  CHECK FOR THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST This test is used to check the compressive strength of concrete used in columns. COLUMNS A column or a pillar in architecture or structural enginnering is a structural element that transmits through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. TEST To check the compressive strength of the concrete, the concrete cubes of size15cm X 15cm X15cm are formed using molds as shown below. MOULDS Concrete is filled in the moulds in three layers with slow tapping so that air voids will be as minimum as possible. These concrete filled moulds are undisturbed for 1 day so that the concrete can set .Next day the mould is opened and concrete cube is obtained .A large number of such cubes are formed. These cubes are then immersed in water so that they can acquire the desired strength after 7, 14 and 28 days respectively. The compressive strength of the cube is measured by using compression machine. The cubes are put into the machine and compressive force is applied on them till the cracks starts to appear on the cube. The reading is noted at which the cracks starts to appear.7 days strength , 14 days and 28 days strength of different cubes are noted. This test is done mainly to check weather the concrete which we are using in column is reliable to bear the load on column or not. MACHINERY MECHANICAL COMPACTOR: It is used for the compaction of cement at site. This machine is handled manually. COMPACTION: The process of removal of voids from the concrete is known as compaction. The removal of air void is compulsory because there presence in the concrete causes the decrement in the strength of the concrete. It consist of a heavy steel rod/needle which is connected to the motor with the help of a flexible long pipe. The motor is designed to prform vibrations in the needle . During the process of laying/applying of concrete the vibrating needle is inserted into the concrete and it is frequently moved inside the concrete from one place to another so as to attain better compaction of concrete. The vibrator is used in slab formation, laying of beams and the erection of columns. It is very useful snd hence provides more strength to the structure. NEEDLE VIBRATOR TILTED DRUM MIXER: This machine has got its name from its tilted drum, which is tilted at some angle. It is used for preparing fresh concrete at site itself by mixing cement, sand, aggregates & water in proper amount. MOBILE TOWER CRANE: It is used to laying and delaying of concrete,aggregates, shuttering . Capacity of crane: 2.5 Ton(2500kg). STEEL BENDING MACHINE: STEEL CUTTING MACHINE: The device which is used to cut the steel bars of desired length according to its use is known as Bar cutter. It consists of a blade which is electrically operated. The bars are measured in length according to the requirement and then cut with the help of blade. TRACTOR Tractor is a machine which is used for the tracking purposes. It is of a great importance in engineering works as it helps in transporting goods, materials and other machines from one part to another. At site, the main function of the tractor is to carry the materials and machines to different places in the site where they are to be used. There is only one tractor at the site which is sufficient enough according to the requirements of the working conditions of the site.With the help of tractor large machines like concrete pump etc are tracked and sometimes it is used to carry man and material from one place to another. A trolley is attached to the tractor for later purpose. Due to the tractor heavy machines, which otherwise require a large manpower and time, are tracked easily thus saving lot of time and energy. BACKHOE LOADER The backhoe loader also known as digger is heavy construction equipment which consist of a tractor fitted with a small backhoe at the rear end a shovel or a bucket at the front. These are very commonly used in urban engineering and small construction projects. These are small in size and versatile relative to the other engineering equipment. BACKHOE loader can be used in wide varieties of tasks such as: • CONSTRUCTION • SMALL DEMOLITIONS • LIGHT TRANSPORTATION OF BUILDING MATERIALS • POWERING BUILDING EQUIPMENTS • EXCAVATION • LANDSCAPING There small size and versatility makes backhoe loaders very useful in construction vehicles.Hence these are preferred at those sites where larger equipments are difficult to be used. VARIOUS STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 1. SLAB 2. BEAM 3. COLUMN 4. STAIR CASE 5. FOOTING 6. RETAINING WALL SLAB: Slab is a horizontal flat member which is supported on columns & beams, which further transfers the load to the foundation. Slab is of following types: One way slab Two way slab Lower Basement Slab details: Thickness= 150 mm Concrete used= M20 Steel used = FE 415 Upper Basement Slab details: Thickness= 150 mm Concrete used= M20 Steel used = FE 415 Ground Level Slab details: Thickness= 200 mm Concrete used = M20 Steel used = FE 415 1 Floor Slab details: Thickness= 200 mm Concrete used = M20 Steel used = FE 415 2 Floor Slab details: Thickness= 200 mm BEAM: Beam is a structural member which transfers load through bending & shear only. Beam transfers load from slab to the column & footing. Beams are of following types: Doubly reinforced beam Flanged beam Beam details: Beam size: Corner 400x700mm Secondary 350x500mm Concrete used= M20 Steel used = FE 415 COLUMN: Column is a vertical load bearing compression member inside a building frame. Columns are following types: Circular column Rectangular column Column details: Concrete used=M20 Steel used = FE 415 Column size: 450x750mm STEPS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTION OF COLUMNS LAYOUT OF COLUMN CONSTRUCTION OF STARTER ↓ BINDING OF STEEL ↓ SHUTTERING ↓ CONCRETING ↓ CURING STARTER: After the initial process of laying out of columns when we have marked the column Position on the “masala” then with the help of little formwork the starter is filled, up to a certain height i.e 100mm. To mark its position and to confirm that the column is in its original position the starter is filled around the column. STARTER RING:It is used to bind the steel bars of beam or column.These are those pieces of steel which make column stand in one place together i.e. It provides stability and it doesn’t allow the column bars to fall apart. It held the column one place. And its spacing is less in between the more bending moment area and more spacing in between two ends of the centre of the column as bending moment is very less at the point. There are many types of rings,namely:  Two legged  Four legged  Eight legged  Twelve legged These all depend upon the strength of the column, if the strength required is more end the column has more no. of steel bars or the steel bars are having diameter more than 32mm, then Eight & Twelve legged rings are used. FOOTING TYPES Footings are structural members used to support columns and walls and to transmit and distribute their loads to the soil in such a way that the load bearing capacity of the soil is not exceeded, excessive settlement, differential settlement,or rotation are prevented and adequate safety against overturning or sliding is maintained. Types of Foundation  Shallows Foundations  Deep Foundations 1- Shallows Foundations Shallow foundations are those founded near to the finished ground surface; generally where the founding depth (Df) is less than the width of the footing and less than 3m. These are not strict rules, but merely guidelines: basically, if surface loading or other surface conditions will affect the bearing capacity of a foundation it is 'shallow' Shallows foundations are used when surface soils are sufficiently strong and stiff to support the imposed loads; they are generally unsuitable in weak or highly compressible soils, such as poorly-compacted fill, peat, recent lacustrine and alluvial deposits, etc. Shallow foundation are following types: • Strip footing • Isolated footing • Combined footing • Strap footing COMBINED FOOTING Isolated and combined footings are laid at the site. Determination of foundation depends upon a) Soil strata b) Bearing capacity c) Type of structure 2- DEEP FOUNDATIONS Deep foundations are those founding too deeply below the finished ground surface for their base bearing capacity to be affected by surface conditions, this is usually at depths >3 m below finished ground level. Deep foundations can be used to transfer the loading to a deeper, more competent strata at depth if unsuitable soils are present near the surface. Deep foundations are used when there are weak (“bad”) soils near the surface or when loads are very high, such as very large skyscrapers. Deep foundations derive their support from deeper soils or bedrock. ROLE OF A TRAINEE AT THE SITE: During the 3 months period of the industrial training ,it is the duty of every trainee to take as much as possible field kn owledge at the site.A trainee has get training about the constructional techniques,surveying methods & estimation of costs. As a trainee on the site our role at the site is as follows: 1.To learn & perform cost estimation of the constructional materials & labour rates. 2. To learn & perform the layout operation of the different structural components with the help of drawings. 3.To learn & perform the surveying process at the site. 4.To know about the constructional techniques of the components of Sub structure & Super structure. 5.To help the site engineers & site incharge in performing different tasks at the site . 6.To keep an eye on the labourers performing the construction works at the site. 7.To ask relavent questions where needed to make the doubts clear. 8.To make daily report of the work done at the site for the daily dairy. BIBLIOGRAPHY: • Concrete Technology - M.L.Gambhir • Building Construction - Dr. B.C.Punmia •
Post: #2
The structural system consists of RC frames in the first three levels and the fourth level has structural steel frames. In addition, the building has rigid diaphragm and regular plant. First, a static linear analysis was performed to design all structural elements. Then, a static pointer analysis was performed to obtain real and idealized capacity curves and performance points in all frames. In the obtained results showed greater ductility in frames of direction X and greater reserve of resistance in the external frames whereas the determined points of realization showed values ​​of resistance suitable for all the frames, but low stiffness in two directions X marks. The seismic action is carried out through various accelerograms compatible with the synthetic design spectrum defined by the seismic codes used in this chapter with three intensity levels corresponding to three specific limit states. Dynamic analysis is used to calculate ductility, resistance, and maximum displacement parameters. It was obtained that an X-direction framework reached the collapse of the State Limit in a very rare earthquake, which implies a general collapse of the building. Finally, an incremental dynamic analysis was performed to obtain fragility curves and damage probability matrix; it was evidenced that the structure has a very high probability of significant lateral displacement despite a suitable and normative design of the structural elements.

Framed in the construction is the assembly of pieces to give a structure support and shape. The framing materials are generally wood, engineered wood, or structural steel. The alternative to framed construction is generally referred to as dome wall construction which is made up of horizontal layers of stacked materials such as building logs, masonry, rammed earth, adobe, etc.

The construction frame is divided into two broad categories: heavy frame construction (heavy frame) if the vertical supports are few and heavy, such as in framing, framing, post framing or steel framing or many and more small called light frame) including balloon, platform and light steel frame. Construction of light frame with standardized dimensional wood has become the dominant building method in North America and Australia because of its economy. The use of minimal structural material allows builders to enclose a large area with minimal cost while attaining a wide variety of architectural styles.

Modern light structure structures often gain strength from rigid panels (plywood and other plywood-like materials such as Oriented Boards (OSB) used to form all or part of wall sections) but until recently carpenters employed various forms of diagonal reinforcement to stabilize walls. Diagonal reinforcement remains a vital part of the interior of many roofing systems, and wall braces are required by building codes in many municipalities or by individual state laws in the United States. Special framed walls are becoming more common to help buildings meet the requirements of earthquake engineering and wind engineering.

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