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Post: #1


.ppt  ppt.ppt (Size: 2.87 MB / Downloads: 437)


MEMS: micro-electro-mechanical systems

Combination of mechanical functions (sensing,moving,heating) and electrical functions (switching ,deciding) on the same chip using micro fabrication technology.


Materials are the basic things required to develop micro sensors

Ceramic materials
Composite materials


Process of shaping silicon or other materials to realise 3-D mechanical in miniature form and the mechanical devices that are compatible with the micro electronic devices


Made of bulky and heavy metal parts
Require high operating voltage/current
Needs careful maintenance
Highly expensive not throwaway type
Post: #2

.doc  MEMS.doc (Size: 203 KB / Downloads: 153)

NEMS have a host of intriguing attributes. They offer access
to fundamental frequencies in the microwave range; Q’s, i.e.
mechanical quality factors, in the tens of thousands (and quite
possibly much higher); active masses in the femtogram range; force
sensitivities at the attonewton level; mass sensitivity at the level of
individual molecules, heat capacities far below a “yoctocalorie” [2]
— this list goes on. These attributes spark the imagination, and a
flood of ideas for new experiments and applications ensues. Of
course, in time this initial enthusiasm gives way to deeper
reflection, and a multitude of new questions and concerns emerge.
Prominent among these is what will be our ultimate ability for
optimally controlling and engineering these miniature systems.

What is MEMS Technology?

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, or MEMS, is a technology that in its most general form can be defined as miniaturized mechanical and electro-mechanical elements (i.e., devices and structures) that are made using the techniques of microfabrication. The critical physical dimensions of MEMS devices can vary from well below one micron on the lower end of the dimensional spectrum, all the way to several millimeters. Likewise, the types of MEMS devices can vary from relatively simple structures having no moving elements, to extremely complex electromechanical systems with multiple moving elements under the control of integrated microelectronics. The one main criterion of MEMS is that there are at least some elements having some sort of mechanical functionality whether or not these elements can move. The term used to define MEMS varies in different parts of the world. In the United States they are predominantly called MEMS, while in some other parts of the world they are called “Microsystems Technology” or “micromachined devices”.

Advantages of MEMS and Nano Manufacturing
First, MEMS and Nanotechnology are extremely diverse technologies that could significantly affect every category of commercial and military product. MEMS and Nanotechnology are already used for tasks ranging from in-dwelling blood pressure monitoring to active suspension systems for automobiles. The nature of MEMS and Nanotechnology and its diversity of useful applications make it potentially a far more pervasive technology than even integrated circuit microchips. Second, MEMS and
Nanotechnology blurs the distinction between complex mechanical systems and integrated circuit electronics. Historically, sensors and actuators are the most costly and unreliable part of a macroscale sensor-actuator-electronics system. MEMS and Nanotechnology allows these complex electromechanical systems to be manufactured using batch fabrication techniques, decreasing the cost and increasing the reliability of the sensors and actuators to equal those of integrated circuits. Yet, even though the performance of MEMS and Nano devices is expected to be superior to macroscale components and systems, the price is predicted to be much lower.

Mems and NanoTechnology -Applications
There are numerous possible applications for MEMS and Nanotechnology. As a breakthrough technology, allowing unparalleled synergy between previously unrelated fields such as biology and microelectronics, many new MEMS and Nanotechnology applications will emerge, expanding beyond that which is currently identified or known. Here are a few applications of current interest:

MEMS accelerometers are quickly replacing conventional accelerometers for crash air-bag deployment systems in automobiles. The conventional approach uses several bulky accelerometers made of discrete components mounted in the front of the car with separate electronics near the air-bag; this approach costs over $50 per automobile. MEMS and Nanotechnology has made it possible to integrate the accelerometer and electronics onto a single silicon chip at a cost between $5 to $10. These MEMS accelerometers are much smaller, more functional, lighter, more reliable, and are produced for a fraction of the cost
of the conventional macroscale accelerometer elements.

Design, simulation, and fabrication technologies for millimeter-scale mobile autonomous systems; efficient actuation; energy scavenging, storage, and conversion; mechanisms for locomotion; system integration
Wireless Sensor Networks
Low power sensors, sensor interfaces, computation, and communication circuits; energy scavenging; system integration; low power communication protocols
Post: #3

.ppt  MEMS TECHNOLOGY.ppt (Size: 2 MB / Downloads: 230)


Micromachined Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), also called Micro fabricated Systems(MS), have evoked great interest in the scientific and engineering communities.
When MEMS devices are combined with other technologies new generation of innovative technology will be created. By using such technologies wide scale applications are being developed every day.
MEMS technology has enabled us to realize advanced micro devices by using processes similar to VLSI technology.
The material properties at the micron scale show that silicon is eminently suited for micromechanical devices and therefore it shows the possibility of integrating MEMS with VLSI electronics.
Process design, development and integration to fabricate reliable MEMS devices on top of VLSI-CMOS electronics using two “Post-CMOS” integration approaches will be presented.


The term MEMS first started being used in the 1980’s.
It is used primarily in the United States and is applied to a broad set of technologies with the goal of miniaturizing systems through the integration of functions into small packages.
The fabrication technologies used to create MEMS devices is very broad based.
MEMS has been identified as one of the most promising technologies for the 21st Century.
It has the potential to revolutionize both industrial and consumer products by combining silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology.
If semiconductor micro fabrication was seen to be the first micro manufacturing revolution, MEMS is the second revolution.

What are MEMS?

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are micron-scale devices that can sense or manipulate the physical world.
MEMS are usually created using micromachining processes (surface or bulk micromachining), which are operations similar to those used to produce integrated circuits (ICs) devices.
MEMS are separate and distinct from the hypothetical vision of molecular nanotechnology or molecular electronics.
MEMS are made up of components between 1 to 100 micrometers in size (i.e. 0.001 to 0.1 mm) and MEMS devices generally range in size from 20 micrometers (20 millionths of a meter) to a millimeter.
Like IC’s previously, MEMS is moving away from discrete components to integrating the mechanical device with electronics, photonics and fluidics in an integrated system.
MEMS will play a vital role in the emerging integration of ICT (Information Communications Technology) markets with biomedical, alternative energy and intelligent transportation.
In addition to sensors, we believe other areas with high growth potential for MEMS in the next coming years.
MEMS can use or reuse mature process equipment obsolete for ICs.

Integration of MEMS with Electronics

The decision to merge CMOS and MEMS devices to realize a given product is mainly driven by performance and cost.
On the performance side, co-fabrication of MEMS structures with drive/sense capabilities which control electronics is advantageous to reduce parasitics, device power consumption, noise levels as well as packaging complexities, yielding to improved system performance.
With MEMS and electronic circuits on separate chips, the parasitic capacitance and resistance of interconnects, bond pads, and bond wires can attenuate the signal and contribute significant noise


MEMS technology can be used to fabricate both application specific devices and the associated micro packaging system that will allow for the integration of devices or circuits, made with non compatible technologies, with a SoC environment.
The monolithic integration of MEMS with CMOS remains an active research area that is crucial for the large scale production of high performance, high yield and low cost MEMS devices.
The main findings of this work as well as provide future directions for the modular integration MEMS field that utilizes p+Si1-xGex and copper-based MEMS technologies.
Post: #4
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