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object oriented modeling and design
Post: #1

object oriented modeling and design


.doc  object oriented modeling and design.doc.doc (Size: 149 KB / Downloads: 51)

ADVANCED CLASS MODELING
Advanced Objects and Class Concepts:


Enumerations: A data type is a description of values. An enumeration is a data type has a finite set of values.
Example: accessPermission in file is an enumeration with possible values that include read and read-write.
Enumerations are also significant for an implementation. An enumeration is merely a list of values; generalization is a means for structuring the description of objects.
Introduce generalization only when at least one sub class has significant attributes, operations or associations that do not apply to the super class.
Example: you should not introduce a generalization for card, because most games do not differentiate the behavior of shades, clubs, hearts and diamonds.


Visibility:

refers to the ability of a method to reference a feature from another class and has the possible values of public, protected, private and package.
• Any method can freely access public features.
• Only methods of the containing class and its descendants via inheritance can access protected features.
• Only methods of the containing class can access private features.
• Methods of classes defined in the same package as the target class can access package features.


A genuine n-ary association:

Programmers use computer languages on projects. This n-ary association is an atomic unit and cannot be subdivided into binary associations without losing information. A programmer may know a language and work on a project, but might not use the language on the project. UML symbol for n-ary associations is a diamond with lines connecting to related classes.


Aggregation versus Association:

If 2 objects are tightly bound by a part whole relationship, it is an aggregation. If the 2 objects are usually considered as independent, even though they may often be linked, it is an association.
Some tests include:
• Would you use the phrase part of?
• Do some operations on the whole automatically apply to its part?
• Do some attribute values propagate from the whole to all or some parts?
• Is there an intrinsic asymmetry to the association, where one class is subordinate to the other?
Aggregations include bill of materials, part explosions and expansions of an object into constituent parts.
Aggregation is drawn like association, expect a small diamond indicates the assembly end.
Example: a lawn mower consists of one blade, one engine, many wheels and one deck.


Constraints on links:
Multiplicity is a constraint on the cardinality of a set. Multiplicity for an association restricts the number of objects related to a given object.
Multiplicity for an attribute specifies the number of values that are possible for each instantiation of an attribute.
Qualification also constrains an association. An association class is a class in every right. Example: it can have attributes and operations, participate in associations and participate in generalization.
Post: #2
Object Oriented Data Modeling


.docx  Object Oriented Data Modeling.docx (Size: 123.42 KB / Downloads: 29)
What is Object Oriented Data Modeling?

• Centers around objects and classes.
• Involves Inheritance.
• Encapsulates both data and behavior.
• Benefits of Object Oriented Data Model:

Concepts of Object Oriented Data Model:

 The concepts of object oriented data model are: Objects, Classes, Inheritance, Attributes, Messages, encapsulation, object identity, object state, Association, Multiplicity, methods, constructors, schema diagram: UML diagram.

Object :

 An object is an abstract representation of real world entity that has a unique identity, embedded properties, and the ability to interact with other objects and itself.
 In object Oriented database, everything is an object and is manipulated as an object.
 In relational database, the tuples are replaced by the objects.
 Objects are instance of a class.
 All objects have identity and are distinguishable.
 For example: two apples with same color, shape and texture are still individual apples.
 The term identity means that objects are distinguished by their inherent existence and not by descriptive properties that they may used.
 A object has set of individual properties, set of shared actions or behaviors and set of relationships with other objects.

Operations and Methods:

 Every objects performs some actions or operations.
 For example: Hire, fire, and pay-dividend are operations performed by the objects of class Company.
 Example: Open, Close, hide are the operations performed by the class Window.
 All objects in a class share the same operations.
 Every operation takes some arguments as input and give result as output after performance of that operation.
 Each operation has a target object (means, the object which performs that operation) which is a default argument to that operation.
 Sometimes a same operation is applied to different classes in different roles, such operation is called polymorphic.
 Methods are the implementation or classification of a operation.
Post: #3
OBJECT ORIENTED MODELING AND DESIGN


.pdf  OBJECT ORIENTED.pdf (Size: 567.82 KB / Downloads: 28)

Object Oriented Methodology is a methodology for object oriented
development and a graphical notation for representing objects oriented concepts. We
can call this methodology as OMT. The methodology has the following stages:
1. Analysis - An analysis model is a concise, precise abstraction of what the
desired system must do, not how it will be done. It should not contain any
implementation details. The objects in the model should be application domain
concepts and not the computer implementation concepts.
2. System design - The designer makes high level decisions about the overall
architecture. In system design, the target system is organized as various
subsystems based on both the analysis structure and the proposed architecture.
3. Object design - The designer builds a design model based on the analysis
model but containing implementation details. The focus of object design is the
data structures and algorithms needed to implement each cycle.
4. Implementation - The object classes and relationships developed during
object design are finally translated into a particular programming language,
database, or hardware implementation. During implementation, it is important to
follow good software engineering practice so that the system can remain the
traceability, flexibility and extensibility.

Object Oriented Themes:

There are several themes in an object oriented technology. These themes are not
unique to object oriented systems. We can see some important themes:
· Abstraction-Abstraction consists of focusing on the essential, inherent aspects
of an entity and ignoring its accidental properties. In system development, it
focuses only on what an object is and does, before deciding how it should be
implemented.
· Encapsulation- It can also be called as information hiding. It consists of
separating the external aspects of an object, which are accessible to other objects,
from the internal implementation details of the object, which are hidden from
other objects. It is not unique to object oriented languages.
· Combining Data and Behavior-The caller of an operation need not consider
how many implementations of a given operation exist. Operator polymorphism
shifts the burden of deciding what implementation to use from the calling code to
the class hierarchy. As an example, let us talk about an object oriented program
calling a draw procedure for drawing different figures say a polygon, circle, or
text. The decision of which procedure to use is made by each object, based on its
class.

Generalization and Inheritance:

Generalization is the relationship between a class and one or more refined versions of it. The class being refined is
called the ‘superclass’ and each refined version are called a ‘subclass’. For example,
Equipment is the superclass of Pump and tank. Attributes and operations that are
common to a group of subclasses are attached to the superclass and shared by each
subclass. Generalization is sometimes called a ‘is-a’ relationship. Each instance of a
subclass is an instance of the superclass. The notation for generalization is a triangle The dangling ellipsis in the above figure indicates that there are additional
subclasses that are not shown in the diagram. This may be since there is no
room on the sheet and they are shown elsewhere or may be because
enumeration of subclasses is still incomplete. You can also see equipment type
written next to the triangle. This is called as a discriminator.
“A discriminator is an attribute of enumeration type that indicates which
property of an object is being abstracted by a particular generalization
relationship.”
 

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