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Object-Oriented Programming ppt
Post: #1

Object-Oriented Programming



.ppt  Object-Oriented Programming.ppt (Size: 70.5 KB / Downloads: 170)

The Evolution of The Notion of Object


In C, a struct models what a thing has/is (i.e., the data, also called the characteristics), but not what it does (its behavior, represented by functions).
The functions are outside and separate from structs.
In C++, the characteristics and behavior are integrated into a single structure, called object.
The data type of an object is the class of the object
The packaging of the data and the functions into a class type is called data encapsulation.


Problems with structs



Need a different struct for each different data type to be pushed onto or popped off the stack
Overflow (although it can be fixed in C, using dynamic data allocation)
The overall structure does not convey a tight coupling between the stack data and the stack operations


Definition of Classes and Objects


A new data type defined with struct (where the data and functions are together) is called a class.
Example: the data type stack is a class
Indeed, C++ has a new reserved word, class, that is synonymous to struct (except for a minor difference explained later)
Any variable of the type defined by struct or class is called an object or instance of that class
Example: In the declaration: stack S;, S is an object of the stack class.


Definition of Members


The declared variables inside structs are called the data fields in C.
In C++, the declared variables and functions inside structs/classes are called members:
member variables
member functions (also called methods)


Data Hiding: Context


Note that users of a stack object can access directly the members data[] and top
For example, a user can do:
But notice that the 3 stack operations are all the users need. They do need to access top directly
Also, this free access can cause problems:
If a user is not careful or is malicious, such a direct access to S.top can invalidate the stack operations’ outcome
It also limits the implementer from evolving/modifying the implementation of the data type


Initialization of Variables


In C, initialization of variables is left to the user.
For example, the member “top” of stack S is not initialized. All calls to push() or pop() cause errors
C++ considers initialization too important to leave to the users’ unreliable memory to remember to initialize.
Even if users remember, observe that:
In the definition of stack, it is illegal to write: int top=0;
If top is private, it is illegal to write: stack S; S.top = 0;
And we don’t want to have top public (as we saw)
Post: #2
Object Oriented Programming


.ppt  Introduction to oops.ppt (Size: 975.5 KB / Downloads: 22)

Evolution of Programming Paradigms

Complexity of software is derived from four elements
The complexity of problem domain
The difficulty of managing the developing process
The flexibility possible through software
The problems of characterizing the behaviour of discrete systems

Monolithic Programming

Consists of only global data and sequential code
Flow control is achieved through jumps(goto)
Program code is duplicated since no subroutine is employed
Suitable for developing small and simple applications
Examples: Assembly Language and Basic

Structured Programming

Emphasis on algorithm rather than data
Programs are divided into individual procedures that perform discrete tasks
Procedures are independent of each other as far as possible
Procedures have their on local data and processing logic
Parameter passing facility between the procedures for information communication
Employs top down approach
Introduction of the concepts of user defined data types
Support for modular programming
Projects can be broken up into modules and programmed independently
Scope of data items is further controlled across modules

Procedure-Oriented Programming

Conventional programming using high level languages like COBOL, FORTRAN, C, etc.
The problem is viewed as a sequence of things to be done.
The primary focus is on functions.
Procedure-oriented programming basically consists of writing a list of instructions for the computer to follow and organizing these instructions into groups known as functions.

Characteristics of Procedure-Oriented Programming

Emphasis is on doing things.
Large programs are divided into smaller programs known as functions.
Most of the functions share global data.
Data move openly around the system from function to function.
Functions transform data from one form to another.
Employs top-down approach in program design.

Object-Oriented Programming

OOP treat data as a critical element in the program development and does not allow it to flow freely around the system.
It ties data more closely to the functions that operate on it, and protects it from accidental modification from outside functions.
OOP allows decomposition of a problem into a number of entities called objects and then build data functions around these objects.
 

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