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Seminar Report on GPS (Global positioning System)
Post: #1

I want the seminar report on GPS...
can i get it plzzz...
Post: #2
to get information about the topic Global Positioning System full report,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

to get information about the topic Global Positioning System full report,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow
Post: #3
Global Positioning System (GPS)

.doc  Global Positioning System.doc (Size: 490.5 KB / Downloads: 37)

.ppt  Seminar on GPS.ppt (Size: 877 KB / Downloads: 36)


The Global Positioning System is a navigation system developed by United states
Department of Defense. Earlier time it was developed for military uses only. Nowadays
it is open for common people also. Navigation in Global Positioning System is done with
the help of satellites. A total of 32 satellites are now on service.
Besides the military uses GPS service can be used for lost and stolen things
recovery, root mapping etc. Other nations are also trying to build up their on satellite
navigation systems IRNSS of India is a proposed project on satellite navigation system.


The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the only fully functional Global
Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The GPS uses a constellation of at least 24 (32 by
March 2008) Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals, that
enable GPS receivers to determine their location, speed, direction, and time. GPS was
developed by the United States Department of Defense. Its official name is NAVSTAR-
GPS. Although NAVSTAR-GPS is not an acronym, a few backronyms have been created
for it. The GPS satellite constellation is managed by the United States Air Force 50th
Space Wing.
Similar satellite navigation systems include the Russian GLONASS (incomplete
as of 2008), the upcoming European Galileo positioning system, the proposed
COMPASS navigation system of China, and IRNSS of India.
Following the shooting down of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 in 1983, President
Ronald Reagan issued a directive making the system available free for civilian use as a
common good. Since then, GPS has become a widely used aid to navigation worldwide,
and a useful tool for map-making, land surveying, commerce, scientific uses, and hobbies
such as geocaching. GPS also provides a precise time reference used in many
applications including scientific study of earthquakes, and synchronization of
telecommunications network
A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the
constellation of GPS satellites high above the Earth. Each satellite continually transmits
messages containing the time the message was sent, a precise orbit for the satellite
sending the message (the ephemeris), and the general system health and rough orbits of
all GPS satellites (the almanac). These signals travel at the speed of light through outer
space, and slightly slower through the atmosphere. The receiver uses the arrival time of
each message to measure the distance to each satellite, from which it determines the
position of the receiver using geometry and trigonometry.The resulting coordinates are
converted to more user-friendly forms such as latitude and longitude, or location on a
map, then displayed to the user

Space segment

The space segment (SS) comprises the orbiting GPS satellites, or Space Vehicles
(SV) in GPS parlance. The GPS design originally called for 24 SVs, eight each in three
circular orbital planes but this was modified to six planes with four satellites each. The
orbital planes are centered on the Earth, not rotating with respect to the distant stars. The
six planes have approximately 55° inclination (tilt relative to Earth's equator) and are
separated by 60° right ascension of the ascending node (angle along the equator from a
reference point to the orbit's intersection). The orbits are arranged so that at least six
satellites are always within line of sight from almost everywhere on Earth's surface.

Control segment

The flight paths of the satellites are tracked by US Air Force monitoring stations
in Hawaii, Kwajalein, Ascension Island, Diego Garcia, and Colorado Springs, Colorado,
along with monitor stations operated by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
(NGA). The tracking information is sent to the Air Force Space Commands master
control station at Schriever Air Force Base in Colorado Springs, which is operated by the
2nd Space Operations Squadron (2 SOPS) of the United States Air Force (USAF). Then 2
SOPS contacts each GPS satellite regularly with a navigational update (using the ground
antennas at Ascension Island, Diego Garcia, Kwajalein, and Colorado Springs). These
updates synchronize the atomic clocks on board the satellites to within a few
nanoseconds of each other, and adjust the ephemeris of each satellite's internal orbital
model. The updates are created by a Kalman filter which uses inputs from the ground
monitoring stations, space weather information, and various other inputs.

Using the P(Y) code

Calculating a position with the P(Y) signal is generally similar in concept, assuming one
can decrypt it. The encryption is essentially a safety mechanism: if a signal can be
successfully decrypted, it is reasonable to assume it is a real signal being sent by a GPS
satellite. In comparison, civil receivers are highly vulnerable to spoofing since correctly
formatted C/A signals can be generated using readily available signal generators. RAIM
features do not protect against spoofing, since RAIM only checks the signals from a
navigational perspective.

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